PUBLISHED: by JOY DEPOY

Learning to Self-Regulate

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Cross-lateral

Infant/Toddler

Birth-4 Months

Learning to Self-Regulate

Ask the infant’s primary caregiver what comfort items are used at home. Ask families to provide a duplicate of the comfort item for use while the infant is in care.

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Help the infant develop a way to self-regulate by consistently using the same item to help the child calm himself.

Note that some comfort items are more useful and appropriate for infants than others. Infants will begin to hold on to a caregiver’s hair, finger, or hand or hold the collar or sleeve of a caregiver’s shirt. Be aware of what an infant is beginning to use as a way of comforting himself and then either support this or help him move toward a more suitable item. Holding the caregiver’s hair while falling asleep may become problematic over time.

The abilities to self-regulate and calm self The use of a comfort item

33



Sharing a Smile

2016

Cathy Waggoner and Martha Herndon

Social-Emotional

Starting with Character

Cross-lateral

Infant/Toddler

Birth-3 Months

Sharing a Smile

None needed

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Help infants learn to smile by smiling at them. Hold your face about ten inches from baby’s face (about the distance on which her eyes can focus in the first three months) and share your happy, loving expressions. The baby will enjoy watching your expressions and will begin responding to them. When you smile, you will eventually be rewarded with a smile in return.

Smiling transcends languages and cultures. It translates as an expression of enjoyment and a demonstration of caring feelings for others. Sharing a smile while making eye contact with a baby is a powerful way to demonstrate caring. Babies begin to watch and mimic facial expressions immediately after birth (Meltzoff and Moore 1983). They are drawn to smiling faces and will try to imitate a smile (Witherington et al. 2010). Your loving attention to infants helps to build their foundation of self- confidence and positive self- worth.

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Playtime

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-4 Months

Playtime

Toy

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During tummy floor time, place two infants a few feet apart and facing each other. Put a toy on the floor between them. Lie down with them or sit close. Encourage each child to lift her head up to see the toy. Talk about the toy and what each infant is seeing, including the other baby. Call each child by name and give each verbal encouragement as both develop the ability to raise their heads and look at toys and each other.

Each day, change the pairings so that each child has this experience with every other child in the room.

To learn to play near another infant. To promote social skills and social development

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Rhythmic Soothing

2016

Cathy Waggoner and Martha Herndon

Social-Emotional

Starting with Character

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Rhythmic Soothing

rocking chair

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Hold an infant while sitting in a rocking chair. Sing or chant to the rhythm of the rocking or perhaps using a simple rhythmic tune, such as “London Bridge Is Falling Down.” For example, you can chant or sing: Johnny likes to rock with me, rock with me, rock with me. Johnny likes to rock with me, to help him go to sleep.

Build foundation for awareness of others. Promote ability to self-soothe.

50



Playing With and Batting Toys Near Another Infant

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-4 Months

Playing With and Batting Toys Near Another Infant

Bars with hanging toys

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As an infant’s motor skills develop, put bars with hanging toys near for him to reach out and bat. Place two or more infants side by side on their backs each with his own bar of hanging toys. Describe what each infant is doing to the other infant, calling each by name. Show joy and excitement in the discoveries made by each child and encourage exploration.

Change the pairings daily so infants get to play near everyone in the classroom.

Promoting interaction with different types of toys within the classroom community. Promote play near another infant.

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Getting Frustrated

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

4-8 Months

Getting Frustrated

None

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Stay near as the infant begins to learn to sit alone, roll over, and pull up. Watch for signs of frustration and verbally describe the child’s behaviors and feelings.

To promote the development of motor skills. To promote the development of persistence. To promote the ability to self-regulate.

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My Family Rituals

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

4-8 Months

My Family Rituals

None

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Encourage families to have drop-off and pickup routines or rituals. This will help both babies and families during transition into and out of the program each day.

Observe the way that a family displays emotions and other cultural behaviors. Be sensitive to these differences and think about how infants learn these and display them while in care. Be alert to your own personal or cultural biases regarding behavioral differences and be careful not to judge infants and families based on these biases.

To promote family culture and rituals. To promote partnerships with families.

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Making Sounds to Imitate

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

4-8 Months

Making Sounds to Imitate

None

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Hold an infant on your lap and make sounds for her to imitate. Wait for her to respond, and then repeat the sound. Also imitate the sounds she makes. Wait for her to respond, and then repeat. Make different movements with your mouth such as puckering your lips, clicking your tongue, and whistling. Pause afterward and wait for the infant to respond.

Learn and use sign language for frequent caregiving activities (eat, change, sleep), familiar objects, and feelings. Look for opportunities to use these signs, while at the same time saying the word.

To promote verbalization. To promote the concept of taking turns. To promote language and communication development.

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Singing with Another Infant

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

4-8 Months

Singing with Another Infant

None

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Sit on the floor and hold two infants in your lap or place two infants near each other. Sing a song to the babies and encourage them to sing along with you. Each day, change the pairings of children so that each infant has this experience with every other child in the room.

As two infants learn to sit alone, place them on the floor and sit nearby. Sing, clap your hands, and move to the music. Make up songs using the children’s names.

To provide an opportunity for infants to be near one another. To promote interaction and feelings of connectedness in the classroom community.

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Taking a Tour of Our Building

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

4-8 Months

Taking a Tour of Our Building

Strollers

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Put the infants in strollers and take a tour of the inside of the school building. Select one area or room to visit at a time. Walk down the hall and look inside rooms as you pass. Take the infants on regular tour outings and consider taking them to visit the kitchen, a gym or large room for active indoor play, or other rooms they may not often visit. While on the tour, stop often, kneel beside the strollers, and point at what the infants are seeing. Name and talk about objects, people, and things.

Visit a group of older children in the building or out on the playground. Let the infants watch the children play. Kneel beside the strollers and talk to the infants about what the older children are doing. Let the older children come near, look at, and talk to the babies.

To provide an opportunity to explore the building. To promote feelings of connectedness to the broader school community

63



Playing a Game to Learn Body Parts

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

8-12 Months

Playing a Game to Learn Body Parts

Mirror

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Make up a song to teach parts of the body. A good tune to use is “Here We Go Around the Mulberry Bush.” As you sit with an infant in front of the mirror, sing the song. “This is the way we touch our mouth, touch our mouth, touch our mouth. This is the way we touch our mouth, early in the morning.” Go through various body parts. Note that infants have a short attention span, so don’t make the game too long.

As infants learn to sit near other children, play the game with two or more at a time. Sit together on the floor and sing the song. Encourage the infants to watch each other.

To teach the names of body parts. To promote the development of a positive sense of self.

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Family Dolls

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

8-12 Months

Family Dolls

Soft dolls of children, mothers, fathers, and grandparents. Or fabric, stuffing, fabric crayons, and thread to make own dolls. Shoe box.

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Collect safe, soft dolls of children, mothers, fathers, and grandparents. If you are unable to find them, you can make simple dolls from fabric, such as muslin, filled with soft stuffing. Draw faces and hair on the dolls using safe fabric crayons (see instructions on the crayon box) or sew features on with thread that is securely attached so they do not present a choking hazard. Make dolls from different colors for a variety of skin tones. Sit with one or more infants and play with the dolls. Talk about families and name the dolls. For example, say, “This is the daddy doll.” Act out pretend activities: “Mommy is going to work. She is waving bye-bye.”

Make simple doll furniture to use with the family dolls. Use a shoe box for a bed and make a small pillow and blanket. Sit with one or more infants and play with the family dolls, acting out going to bed.

To promote feelings of belonging to a family. To provide play experiences with dolls.

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Crawling Around Together

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

8-12 Months

Crawling Around Together

Sturdy box or simple tent

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As infants begin to crawl, place a sturdy box or make a simple tent that they can crawl into. Play the going away and coming back game as they crawl into the space and cannot be seen. Sit near and describe what they are doing. Model for two infants how to crawl into the box or tent and sit together. Sit near and describe what’s happening using words such as in, out, and under. Use words such as together and sitting close. Call each infant by name.

Sit with two infants who have learned to pull up and encourage them to pull up to the same table. Have some soft toys ready on top of the table. Show them how to pat the table or bang on it with a toy. Model for the infants and encourage them to repeat your actions. Draw their attention to each other, call them by name, and describe their play.

To promote active play with another infant. To promote the development of social skills.

76



Learning Words for Feelings

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

8-12 Months

Learning Words for Feelings

Magazines, cardboard, scissors, glue stick or tape.

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Cut pictures from magazines of people’s facial expressions. Laminate the photographs on heavy cardboard and make a simple feelings book. Sit with an infant and look at the feelings book. Wait for him to look, point, and make his own facial expression and sounds. Point to the faces and facial features in the picture and name the feeling that the person is exhibiting, such as, “She is happy. See her big smile?” Teach words for different feelings, such as mad, sad, afraid, excited, and frustrated.

Teach infants how to use baby sign language to communicate their feelings. Teach them how to sign happy, sad, afraid, mad, and other feeling words. Use baby sign language in conjunction with verbal language to describe what a child may be feeling as well as your own feelings.

To promote language and communication development. To promote the ability to use words to express feelings.

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Eating Together

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

8-12 Months

Eating Together

None

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Place infants where they can see one another as they eat. If they are fed in high chairs, place the chairs in a small circle. Sit and eat with them. Call each baby by name and talk about what each is eating and doing. This is a social time when infants can feel part of the classroom family. When babies are able to sit in small chairs at a low table, several of them can sit together for snacks and meals.

Expect spills and accidents during meals. This is an opportunity to teach self-regulation, verbal communication, and problem solving. Model emotional control and how to handle accidents when they occur. Infants will learn what people do when they are angry, frustrated, and impatient by watching and modeling what you do and say. Verbally explain what has happened and what you are going to do. For example, say, “Oh, I spilled the juice. I am going to get a cloth and wipe it up.” You model that it is okay. Acknowledge mistakes or accidents when they happen and model what you want the infants to learn to do.

To promote feelings of connectedness to others. To promote positive mealtime experiences. To promote the development of social skills.

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Learning to Do Things

2018

Carla B. Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

12-18 Months

Learning to Do Things

camera, printer, cardstock

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Take photographs of a toddler playing and doing things in the classroom. Print the photographs on card stock. Write the child’s name on her photo card. Sit with her and talk about her photographs, describing what she is doing.

Make postcards from the photographs to send home to each toddler’s family. Write messages on the back of the postcards. Use the postcards as a way to inform families about development and to provide examples of how their children learn through play. Make more family postcards but leave the backs blank. Send home several postcards with each toddler. Encourage the families to return the postcards with a written message that can be read to their children during the day. Sit with a toddler and read her family’s message. Make a collage display on a bulletin board or on the wall low enough for toddlers to see. Talk with the children about their photographs. Save the postcards and give them back to families as you take new photographs, showing toddlers’ growth, development, and learning.

To promote the development of a positive sense of self. To promote the development of motor skills.

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Do You Hear What I Hear?

2013

Jean Barbre

Transitions

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Do You Hear What I Hear?

Suggested Books – Baby Sounds: A Baby-Sized Introduction to Sounds We Hear Everyday by Joy Allen – Baby’s First Sounds by Hinkler Books – Boom Boom, Beep Beep, Roar! My Sounds Book by David Diehl – Polar Bear, Polar Bear, What Do You Hear? by Bill Martin Jr. and Eric Carle – The Sounds around Town by Maria Carluccio – What’s That Noise? by Sally Rippin

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Outdoor environments offer endless opportunities for awakening the senses. Take an infant outdoors to listen for sounds, such as cars, trucks, children playing, people working, animals, birds, and the wind blowing through trees. Stop and name the sound you hear. Point in the direction of the sound or to the thing making the sound. See if the infant follows with his eyes. Spend time listening to each sound for several minutes. Then listen for a new sound. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the infant.

Modifications for Toddlers and Twos Ask the child to listen for a sound and name it. If you can’t see what is making the sound, search for its source together. Expand the Activity Imitate the sounds you hear, such as a barking dog or rumbling truck. Tell the infant, “I hear a dog barking: Woof! Woof!” Encourage the infant to make the sound too. “Let’s make the sound of the barking dog together: Woof! Woof!”

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Sense of self – Relationships with adults Physical Development – Perception Cognitive Development - Memory – Connecting experiences – Imitating others – Following simple directions Language Development - Concept words – Receptive language – Expressive language – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Using language in play

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Here I Come

2013

Jean Barbre

Transitions

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Here I Come

Suggested Books – Baby Happy, Baby Sad by Leslie Patricelli – Hug by Jez Alborough – I Love You Through and Through by Bernadette Rossetti-Shustak – Wah! Wah! A Backpack Baby Story by Miriam Cohen – What Shall We Do with the Boo-Hoo Baby? by Cressida Cowell

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Responding to an infant’s needs in a timely and caring manner helps establish the security and trust that form the foundation for her healthy growth and development. Pay close attention to times when she is upset or scared. Even if you can’t respond to her immediately, say her name to reassure her and tell her you will be there very soon. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the infant.

Modifications for Toddlers and Twos Toddlers and twos still need your attention and reassurance when they are upset, but they may be quieted easier because their language and communication skills (both receptive and expressive) are more advanced. They have a better understanding of what you tell them and, as important, can often tell you what is wrong or what they need. Try to keep a short dialogue going until you can go to the child. Expand the Activity Playing soft music or singing quiet songs while you perform routine tasks such as diaper changing can sooth infants who are waiting for your attention and care.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development - Relationships with adults – Sense of self – Personal identity – Self-regulation Physical Development – Perception Cognitive Development – Cause and effect – Memory – Spatial awareness – Connecting experiences Language Development - Communicating needs – Receptive language – Expressive language – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Concept words

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What Do You See?

2013

Jean Barbre

Transitions

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

What Do You See?

Suggested Books – 101 First Words at Home by Hinkler Studios – First 100 Words by Roger Priddy – Flaptastic First Words by DK Publishing – My Big Animal Book by Roger Priddy – Things That Move by Jo Litchfield – Very First Words by Felicity Brooks

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Sit with the infant on your lap (indoors or outdoors). Point to things in the environment. Slowly call his attention to the things he is most likely to notice, such as brightly colored objects or things that are making a noise. Name the things you point to and talk about them. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the infant.

Modifications for Toddlers and Twos After pointing to and naming something, ask the children to tell you what they see. If the thing you point to makes a noise, such as a dog or cat, ask the children what the animal “says” (that is, what noise the animal makes). Expand the Activity Hold the baby and walk around an entire area. Stop before pointing to and naming an object.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Personal identity – Relationships with adults Physical Development – Perception Cognitive Development – Memory – Spatial awareness – Connecting experiences – Following simple directions Language Development - Receptive language - Connecting words with real-world knowledge

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Color We Will Go

2013

Jean Barbre

Transitions

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Color We Will Go

Suggested Books – Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See? by Bill Martin Jr. – Colors, ABC, Numbers by Roger Priddy – I’m Your Bus by Marilyn Singer – White Rabbit’s Color Book by Alan Baker

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Help the child learn the names of objects and colors. Walk with an infant in your arms or hold the hand of a toddler when you play this game. Name an object—say, a rubber duck—and then tell the child, “The rubber ducky is yellow.” Point to the object and let the child touch and feel it. As you move from object to object, sing “A Color We Will Find,” found in the Songs, Chants, and Fingerplays section of this activity. Repeat the song, identifying different colors and objects. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the children.

Modifications for Twos Ask the children to identify and collect objects that are the same color. Children can ask for your help. Expand the Activity Continue helping the children identify objects and begin sorting them by category, such as big, medium, or small, or by texture, such as smooth, rough, or slippery.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Relationships with adults Physical Development – Fine-motor skills Cognitive Development – Memory – Spatial awareness – Connecting experiences – Progression of play Language Development - Receptive language - Expressive language – Communicating needs – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Concept words – Engaging in music, rhythm, and rhyme – Using language in play

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Eye Spy

2013

Jean Barbre

Transitions

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Eye Spy

– Small, clear plastic containers with lids – Tray – Labels – Magnifying glass – An assortment of items to explore (such as small rocks, seashells, beans, buttons, feathers, and corks) Suggested Books – Black and White Rabbit’s ABC by Alan Baker – First 100 Words by Roger Priddy – Richard Scarry’s Best First Book Ever! by Richard Scarry

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Introduce one item at a time to the children. Place each one on a tray to provide a neutral background, and let the children examine them. Describe what they are seeing and feeling. Sort items, place each group in a clear plastic container, and secure the lid tightly. Place a label on each container identifying its contents. Let the children pick up the containers, shake them, and look at the items by rotating the containers. Talk to them about what they’re seeing and hearing. Read the suggested books and introduce the vocabulary words to the children.

Modifications for Twos Let the children choose additional items to place in new containers. You may find things on outdoor walks, such as nontoxic leaves or pieces of tree bark on the ground. Let the children look at the items with a magnifying glass. Talk to them about what they see and feel. Expand the Activity Put two or three items together on a tray and let the children begin to sort, categorize, and name them before you put them in the plastic containers. Talk with the children about the different sounds the items make when you shake the containers. Compare and contrast them with other items in the classroom.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Sense of self – Personal identity – Relationships with adults – Relationships with peers – Sharing Physical Development – Perception – Fine-motor skills Cognitive Development - Progression of play – Cause and effect – Memory – Spatial awareness – Number awareness Language Development - Expressive language – Receptive language – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Concept words – Engaging in print

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Come to Me

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Come to Me

– Small toys or objects that will interest an infant, such as noise-making or brightly colored toys Suggested Books – Caillou Moves Around by Christine L’Heureux – First Steps by Lee Wardlaw – I Can by Helen Oxenbury – Ready, Set, Walk! by Warner Brothers – Wiggle and Move by Sanja Rescek

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To encourage an infant who is not yet crawling to crawl to you, begin by laying him on his tummy. Sit a short distance away from him and set the toy next to you. Say his name and invite him to crawl to you and get the toy. Be sure to reinforce his efforts as he attempts to crawl. If he reaches you, give him the toy and encourage him to explore it. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the infant.

Modifications for Toddlers and Twos Encourage a toddler who is not yet walking to walk to you. Begin by having her stand next to something she is familiar with for support. Sit or kneel a short distance from her and set the toy next to you. Say her name and invite her to walk to you and pick up the toy. If she is successful, give her the toy and encourage her to hold and explore it. Expand the Activity After an infant has mastered crawling a short distance, increase the distance and invite him to crawl to you from farther away.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Sense of self – Personal identity Physical Development - Gross-motor skills – Perception Cognitive Development - Spatial awareness – Cause and effect – Following simple directions Language Development – Receptive language – Concept words

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Musical Babies

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Musical Babies

– CD player or MP3 player – CD or MP3 files of short children’s songs (or other short songs babies might enjoy) Suggested Books – Baby Mozart: Music Is Everywhere by Julie Aigner-Clark – Elmo’s World: Music! by Random House – Music: Discovering Musical Horizons by Brainy Baby Company – Music Play by H. A. Rey – Pat the Bunny: Shake, Shake, Bunny by Golden Books

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Music is an important part of early childhood programs because it can be used to enhance children’s learning across all developmental domains—not to mention that most babies enjoy listening and moving to music. This game is similar to Musical Chairs. While the music plays, carry and move with the infant around the room. When the music stops, stop moving. When the music starts again, resume moving. The more enthusiastic you are when stopping and starting, the more likely the baby will engage in the game as well. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the infant.

Modifications for Toddlers and Twos Toddlers and twos may be able to play the game more like traditional Musical Chairs. When you start the music, have the children move around the play area any way they wish. When you stop the music, have the children sit on the floor. Expand the Activity Invite other caregivers and babies to join in the game. You and the other caregivers move around the space singing songs. Stop moving when you stop singing. Again, showing enthusiasm and changing the way you move (walk quickly, walk slowly, wiggle around, or dance) may engage the babies in the game even more.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development - Relationships with peers – Sense of self – Relationships with adults Physical Development – Gross-motor skills Cognitive Development – Cause and effect – Memory – Spatial awareness – Connecting experiences – Progression of play – Following simple directions Language Development - Engaging in music, rhythm, and rhyme – Receptive language – Expressive language – Using language in play

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Touch-It Tubs

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Touch-It Tubs

– Plastic tubs, such as small washtubs – A variety of items that are appropriate and safe for infants to explore with their hands and mouths: - Small toys with different textures - Fabric samples with different textures (burlap, velvet, faux fur, fleece) - Clean lids from baby-food jars or frozen juice cans - Items that make noise when banged together, such as measuring cups and spoons Suggested Books – Baby Touch and Feel 1, 2, 3 by DK Publishing – Baby Touch and Feel Farm by DK Publishing – Pooh’s Touch and Feel Visit by A. A. Milne – Touch and Feel Adventure: Discovering Colors and Textures by Alexis Barad-Cutler – Whose Back Is Bumpy? by Kate Davis

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Place the items in the tubs. Place the tubs in an area where infants can explore what’s inside the tubs, either by sitting next to you for support or by sitting up independently. For infants who enjoy exploring on their tummies, place the items on the floor in front of them, either at a distance (to encourage crawling) or close enough for them to reach out and grasp. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the infants.

Modifications for Toddlers and Twos Add sand to the tubs to encourage activities such as scooping and pouring. Expand the Activity Take the tubs outdoors and fill them with safe, natural items that infants can explore with their hands and mouths.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Sense of self – Personal identity – Relationships with peers – Sharing Physical Development - Fine-motor skills – Perception Cognitive Development - Connecting experiences – Cause and effect – Spatial awareness Language Development – Receptive language – Expressive language – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Concept words – Using language in play

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Where Did It Go?

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Where Did It Go?

– Small blanket or towel – Brightly colored toy or a favorite toy Suggested Books – Peek-a-Baby by Karen Katz – Peek-a-Boo! by Roberta Grobel Intrater – Peekaboo Baby by Sebastien Braun – Playtime Peekaboo! by DK Publishing – Where’s Ellie? by Salina Yoon

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Most young infants have not developed the concept of object permanence, the idea that an object is still there even though they can’t see it. After getting a baby’s attention, hide a toy beneath a blanket. Pull back the blanket to reveal the toy and act surprised. Repeat this action for as long as she is interested. Hold the baby on your lap and read peekaboo books or books in which things are hidden. Older infants may also enjoy lifting books with flaps to find hidden things. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the infant.

Modifications for Toddlers and Twos Play the same game with a toddler, but after you hide the toy, ask her to find it for you. Expand the Activity Have the children hide the toy from you and try to find it. Act surprised both when you find the toy and when the toy “disappears.”

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Relationships with adults Physical Development - Perception Cognitive Development - Spatial awareness – Cause and effect – Memory – Connecting experiences – Imitating others Language Development – Receptive language – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Concept words – Using language in play

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You Can Do It Too

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

You Can Do It Too

Suggested Books – Big Bird’s Copycat Day by Sharon Lerner – Can You? Waddle Like a Penguin by Price Stern Sloan – Cookie See! Cookie Do! by Anna Jane Hays – From Head to Toe by Eric Carle – Monkey See, Monkey Do by Helen Oxenbury

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Sit with an infant on your lap or sit facing the infant if she is able to sit up by herself. Make a variety of movements with your hands, such as waving or wiggling your fingers; be sure to describe what you are doing. After each movement, ask the baby to do the same movement. If she is unable to, take her hands and gently make the movement for her. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the infant.

Modifications for Toddlers and Twos Ask the children to make movements for you to imitate. Or play music and ask them to move to the music by clapping hands or bouncing up and down—then you make the movements too. Expand the Activity Make simple movements with your mouth, such as opening and closing it, or make silly sounds with your mouth for the baby to imitate.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Sense of self – Personal identity – Relationships with adults – Self-regulation Physical Development – Gross-motor skills – Fine-motor skills – Perception Cognitive Development - Imitating others - Following simple directions – Cause and effect – Memory – Spatial awareness – Connecting experiences Language Development – Receptive language – Expressive language – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Concept words – Using language in play

56



One, Two, Three - Hey, That's Me!

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

12-18 Months

One, Two, Three - Hey, That's Me!

– A mirror Suggested Books – ABC I Like Me! by Nancy Carlson – Eyes, Nose, Fingers, and Toes: A First Book All About You by Judy Hindley – Ten Little Fingers by Annie Kubler – Two Eyes, a Nose, and a Mouth by Roberta Grobel Intrater

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Sit facing an older infant or toddler. First, verbally count and use your fingers, saying, “One, two, three.” Then point and identify the different parts of the child’s and your face, using the suggested chant. The child can use a mirror to look at herself. The repetition and rhythm of the chant provide early development of sense of self and personal identity. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the children.

Modification for Twos Older infants and toddlers can use the chant to identify body parts. Follow the children’s lead when they point out their body features. The counting of one, two, three provides a foundation for following simple directions. For example, “One, two, three, follow me.” Expand this Activity As children learn to identify parts of their bodies beyond their faces, such as knees, feet, and toes, sing “Hokey Pokey” or “Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes.”

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development - Sense of self - Personal identity – Relationships with adults Physical Development – Gross-motor skills Cognitive Development – Memory – Number awareness – Imitating others – Progression of play Language Development – Receptive language – Engaging in music, rhythm, and rhyme

102



Playing with Puppets

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

12-18 Months

Playing with Puppets

– White socks – Scissors – Glue – Crayons – Markers – Buttons – Pom-poms – Yarn – Felt – Fabric – Ready-made puppets Suggested Books – Bear Snores On by Karma Wilson – Bear’s Busy Family by Stella Blackstone – Harry the Dirty Dog by Gene Zion – The Very Hungry Caterpillar by Eric Carle

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Puppets are fun for all ages. You can make a puppet or use ready-made ones when you tell a story or talk with a child. Puppets can be used to develop a sense of self in young children by fostering communication, role play, social interaction, imitation, and imagination. To make a sock puppet, take a white sock and either sew buttons on for eyes or color them in with a black marker. Decorate it using pom-poms, yarn, felt, and fabric. Use funny voices when you use the puppets to talk or read with the children. Supervise the children while they play with sturdy puppets and use them for pretend play and acting out stories. Read the suggested books and introduce the vocabulary words to the children.

Modifications for Twos Select a story to read to the children. Find pictures on the Internet of objects in the story, such as bears, frogs, bugs, or insects. Make colored prints of the pictures. Laminate the pictures and glue them onto separate tongue depressors. Let the children hold the stick puppets while you read the story. Expand the Activity Encourage the children to create paper-bag puppets using construction paper, crayons, markers, pom-poms, yarn, felt, and fabric. Ask children to tell or retell a story using their puppets.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development - Sense of self – Personal identity – Relationships with adults – Relationships with peers – Sharing Physical Development – Fine-motor skills Cognitive Development – Memory – Connecting experiences – Imitating others – Progression of play – Following simple directions Language Development - Receptive language – Expressive language – Communicating needs – Engaging in print – Using language in play

110



Push and Pull

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

12-18 Months

Push and Pull

– A variety of push-and-pull toys (such as trucks, cars, planes, balls, buggies, and shopping carts) Suggested Books – ABCDrive! by Naomi Howland – Dig Dig Digging by Margaret Mayo – I’m Your Bus by Marilyn Singer – Richard Scarry’s Best First Book Ever! by Richard Scarry

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Provide children with a variety of large and small push-and-pull toys. Identify the name and parts of each toy. Choose toys that can be used indoors and outdoors. Make sure to include large, sturdy push-and-pull toys to stabilize children who are learning to walk and stand on their own. Children quickly learn how to play with these toys and begin to direct their own learning. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the children.

Modifications for Twos Set small toys, such as cars, trucks, and balls, in baskets or containers that are easily accessible for play in all the learning centers. Model how children can incorporate these toys with other play materials. For example, help the children build ramps out of blocks and show them how they can roll and push the cars up and down the ramps. Expand the Activity Model how toys with baskets, such as shopping carts or wagons, can be used to carry items from one area to another. This stimulates children’s imaginations and develops number and spatial awareness. Read the suggested books, and talk about the different types of jobs of people who drive cars and trucks.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Sense of self – Relationships with peers – Self-regulation – Sharing Physical Development - Gross-motor skills - Fine-motor skills Cognitive Development – Cause and effect – Memory – Spatial awareness – Connecting experiences – Number awareness – Progression of play – Following simple directions Language Development – Receptive language – Expressive language – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Concept words – Using language in play

112



Round About

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

12-18 Months

Round About

– Wood blocks – A medium-size box – An assortment of different-size, too-large-to-be-swallowed round and circular objects (such as balls, stacking rings, cups, and bottles) Suggested Books – ABCDrive! by Naomi Howland – Dig Dig Digging by Margaret Mayo – Gray Rabbit’s Odd One Out by Alan Baker – Opposites by Sandra Boynton

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Show children the round objects in the box and begin to describe them. Encourage the children to feel the objects and roll them on the table or floor. Use wood blocks to create a ramp for items to roll down. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the children.

Modifications for Twos Encourage older children to search the room for round objects and then have them sort the objects by size from smallest to largest. Go for a walk outdoors and point out all the things that are round, such as door knobs, tires, flowerpots, and trash cans. Read suggested books to the children. Expand the Activity Using paper, crayons, and markers, encourage older children to trace around larger circular objects. Older children can practice drawing circles with chalk on the pavement outdoors.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Relationships with adults – Sharing Physical Development – Perception – Fine-motor skills Cognitive Development - Spatial awareness - Connecting experiences – Cause and effect – Memory – Imitating others – Progression of play Language Development – Receptive language – Expressive language – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Concept words – Using language in play

118



We Go Together

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

12-18 Months

We Go Together

– A variety of items that go together or match (such as socks and shoes, mittens and hats, measuring spoons, and a pail and shovel) Suggested Books – On the Seashore by Anna Milborne and Erica-Jane Waters – Richard Scarry’s Best First Book Ever! by Richard Scarry – Richard Scarry’s What Do People Do All Day? by Richard Scarry – Rosie’s Walk by Pat Hutchins – A Sock Is a Pocket for Your Toes: A Pocket Book by Elizabeth Garton Scanlon – Some Things Go Together by Charlotte Zolotow

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Share with children how some items go together. Show the items you have selected, and talk about what goes with what and why. When reading stories, show pictures of things that go together. When children are playing, point out things that go together—for example, paint and paintbrushes, puzzle boards and puzzle pieces, and wheels and cars. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the children.

Modifications for Twos Collect a variety of items and help the children sort items that go together. Tell then that there can be more than two items that go together—for example, a boat, a fishing pole, a bucket, and a fish. Expand the Activity Before you read a story to the children, ask them to share what things might go with the story. For example, when you’re reading On the Seashore, the children might mention seashells, sand, water, and birds.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Sense of self – Relationships with adults – Relationships with peers – Sharing Physical Development – Perception – Fine-motor skills Cognitive Development – Memory – Spatial awareness – Connecting experiences – Number awareness – Imitating others Language Development - Receptive language - Expressive language – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Concept words

138



Dump and Fill

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

2-Year

Dump and Fill

– Large and small unbreakable containers – An assortment of items for filling and dumping containers (such as large beads, toy farm animals, ABC blocks, and large pegs) Suggested Books – Colors, ABC, Numbers by Roger Priddy – Dig Dig Digging by Margaret Mayo – Richard Scarry’s Best First Book Ever! by Richard Scarry

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Toddlers love to fill containers with items and then dump them out. Place all of the items in the large containers and invite the children to dump them out. You need to demonstrate how to fill the containers so they can be dumped again. Talk to the children about how many items they can get in a container and how the items sound when they are dumped out. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the children.

Modifications for Twos Add sand to large containers and repeat the activity. Do this outside or at a sand table. Expand the Activity Ask the children to sort and count the items with you. Demonstrate how to stack smaller containers into a larger one. This will help children learn to clean up and put things where they belong.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Sense of self – Personal identity – Relationships with adults – Relationships with peers – Sharing Physical Development – Perception – Fine-motor skills Cognitive Development - Cause and effect - Connecting experiences – Memory – Spatial awareness – Number awareness – Imitating others – Progression of play – Following simple directions Language Development – Receptive language – Expressive language – Communicating needs – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Concept words – Using language in play

150



I'm Glad I'm Me

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

2-Year

I'm Glad I'm Me

Suggested Books – ABC I Like Me! by Nancy Carlson – Today I Feel Silly: And Other Moods That Make My Day by Jamie Lee Curtis – We Are All Alike—We Are All Different by Cheltenham Elementary School Kindergartners

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Describe how each child is alike and different from their peers. Talk about differences and similarities, such as eye and hair colors. Emphasize how everyone is a special and unique individual. Ask children what they like to do at home and what they like to play with at school. Read the suggested books and introduce the vocabulary words to the children.

Modifications for Twos Let older children draw a picture of themselves. On the back of the paper, write the child’s description of what makes him feel special and unique. Expand the Activity In a small group, encourage the children to share one or two things they like about themselves, such as playing outdoors or painting. You may want to have the children hold up photographs of themselves during their turn.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development - Personal identity - Empathy – Sense of self – Relationships with adults – Relationships with peers – Caring for others – Sharing Physical Development – Perception – Gross-motor skills – Fine-motor skills Cognitive Development – Memory – Spatial awareness – Connecting experiences – Imitating others Language Development – Receptive language – Expressive language – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Concept words

160



Jars of Music

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

2-Year

Jars of Music

– Five or six glass jars of different sizes and shapes – Water – Pitcher – A wooden spoon – A metal spoon Suggested Books – Gray Rabbit’s Odd One Out by Alan Baker – My Five Senses by Aliki – My Five Senses by Margaret Miller – Opposites by Sandra Boynton – Rosie’s Walk by Pat Hutchins

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Fill a pitcher with water and pour it into different size glass jars, varying the amount of water in each jar. Demonstrate how each jar sounds different when you tap on the glass. Tap the jars with the wooden and metal spoons at the top and bottom, and talk about the different sounds you hear. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the children.

Modifications for Twos Let older children pour the water into the jars themselves. They can add food coloring to the jars. Talk about the colors of the water. Expand the Activity Select two identical short jars and one tall, narrow jar. Fill the short jars with the same amount of water, and ask the children to listen to the sound the jars make when tapped. Say that the jars have the same amount of water. Pour the water from one of the short jars into the tall, narrow jar. Talk about how the jars look different but contain the same amount of water.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Sense of self – Relationships with adults – Relationships with peers – Sharing Physical Development - Perception – Fine-motor skills Cognitive Development - Spatial awareness – Cause and effect – Memory – Connecting experiences – Imitating others – Following simple directions Language Development – Receptive language – Expressive language – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Concept words – Using language in play

164



Orange Peel

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

2-Year

Orange Peel

– Fresh oranges – Cutting board – Paper napkins Suggested Books – Mouse’s First Day of School by Lauren Thompson – My Five Senses by Aliki – My Five Senses by Margaret Miller – White Rabbit’s Color Book by Alan Baker

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Let the children feel and smell the oranges before you peel them. Talk about the round shape of the oranges, the bumpy surface, the navel, and the orange color. Be sure to wash each orange before you peel and serve it. Begin to slowly peel the orange and describe what you are doing. Describe the inner flesh and juicy portion of the fruit. Pass the peel around for the children to feel and smell. Serve pieces of the fruit as a snack. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the children.

Modifications for Twos Let older children look at the outside and inside of the orange peel with a magnifying glass. Talk about the peel and how it feels. If the oranges have seeds, describe the seeds and let older children feel them. Juice the oranges and talk about the pulp. Expand the Activity Leave the peel in the sunshine. Let the children examine what happens when the peel dries and the edges curl. You can also help children identify objects in the room that are the color orange.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development – Relationships with adults – Relationships with peers – Sharing Physical Development - Perception – Fine-motor skills Cognitive Development – Memory – Spatial awareness – Connecting experiences Language Development - Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Receptive language – Expressive language – Concept words

174



Soapy Bubbles

2013

Jean Barbre

Language-Literacy

Activities for Responsive Caregiving

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

2-Year

Soapy Bubbles

– Plastic bucket or tub – Dishwashing liquid – Glycerin (found in drug stores) or corn syrup – Eggbeater – Measuring cups and spoons – Bubble wands (purchased or handmade from string or chenille stems) – Fly swatters – Plastic berry baskets – Plastic cookie cutters – Vegetable strainer – Towels Suggested Books – Brown Rabbit’s Shape Book by Alan Baker – Bubbles, Bubbles by Kathi Appelt – First 100 Words by Roger Priddy – My Five Senses by Aliki – My Five Senses by Margaret Miller

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This activity can get messy and is best done outdoors. Place 1 cup of water and 2 tablespoons of dish washing soap in the plastic bucket. Beat the mixture with the eggbeater. Dip the wands into the soapy solution. Dip clean fly swatters, plastic berry baskets, plastic cookie cutters, and a variety of colanders into the bubble solution. Allow children to experiment with these various tools to create bubbles. Describe the bubbles to the children, and let them play. You can add 1 to 2 tablespoons of corn syrup or glycerin for a different bubble experience. For homemade bubble mixture, make it the day before and let it sit overnight. Have towels nearby to soak up spills. Read the suggested books, introduce the vocabulary words, and sing and chant with the children.

Modifications for Twos Make wands from chenille stems by twisting the ends together to make a circle. Twist another around it to make the handle. For a larger wand, twist two chenille stems together, or cover the neck of a wire coat hanger with electrical tape and reshape it into a star, circle, square, or diamond. Expand the Activity Make colored bubbles by mixing 1 cup liquid tempera paint, 2 tablespoons of dish washing liquid, and 1 tablespoon of liquid starch. Color and bubbles can be a bit messy, so be sure that children are wearing painting aprons. Use paint that can wash out easily. If the mixture is too thick, you can thin it with water. This is a great way to help children learn their colors.

LEARNING OUTCOMES Social-Emotional Development - Self-regulation – Sense of self – Relationships with adults – Relationships with peers – Sharing Physical Development – Perception – Fine-motor skills Cognitive Development – Cause and effect – Memory – Spatial awareness – Connecting experiences – Imitating others – Progression of play – Following simple directions Language Development - Expressive language – Receptive language – Communicating needs – Connecting words with real-world knowledge – Concept words – Using language in play

192



Fingerpainting

1999

Fran Hast and Ann Hollyfield

Art

Infant and Toddler Experiences

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Fingerpainting

- Finger paint: use commercial paint or mix liquid starch and powdered or liquid tempera directly on the paper. - Smooth, slick paper. - Smocks or old T-shirts, if necessary. - Towels for clean-up. - Plastic to cover floor.

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- Have materials ready. - Remove children’s clothing if the room is warm enough. Put smocks or paint shirts on children to protect their clothes if necessary. - Put a piece of paper in front of each child and offer him his choice of paint color. Or pour 1 or 2 tablespoons of liquid starch on each child’s paper and offer him a choice of tempera color to add. - Let the children mix and move the finger paint. - Allow them their own experience, responding to their comments.

- Offer infants teethers or other appropriate chew toys if they are putting paint in their mouths. - Use phrases like these to help toddlers keep paint on the paper: -- “Paint is for your hands and the paper.” -- “Please clean the paint off your hands before playing with the other toys.”

To provide new experiences and interactions with new materials. To promote participation within the classroom community.

77



Collage of Faces

1999

Fran Hast and Ann Hollyfield

Art

Infant and Toddler Experiences

Gross-motor

Infant/Toddler

18-24 Months

Collage of Faces

- Photos of children’s faces cut from magazines or photos. - Choices of paper for gluing onto. - Glue in shallow bowls and brushes (water-soluble school glue aids clean–up). - Trays (approximately 12 by 18 inches).

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- Have the materials ready ahead of time. - Give each toddler a tray to focus his attention and contain the materials. Each tray should have a glue container, a brush, and the child’s choice of paper. - Let the children choose from many cutout faces accessible to them on the table. - Respond to the toddlers’ comments and reactions to the faces. Expand their recognition of physical characteristics with comments like “Yes, she has brown eyes like you do” or “That does look like Sami’s mom!” Don’t be afraid of questions about skin color or other visible physical differences, but respond matter-of-fact, using phrases like these: “Yes, her skin is lighter than yours” or “Those are hearing aids. He wears them to help him hear better.” - Help children with gluing if they ask you to, doing just enough to get them “unstuck” so they can complete it themselves.

- Facilitate turn taking and/or trading when toddlers request an item someone else is using. - Provide alternative toys or books for toddlers not wishing to participate or who indicate they are finished by trashing the materials.

Toddler will have specific tray to focused attention. Toddler is able to choose from materials at the table. The toddler builds language by using words to comment, respond and react to the faces he recognizes.

160



Colored Glue

1999

Fran Hast and Ann Hollyfield

Art

Infant and Toddler Experiences

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

18-24 Months

Colored Glue

- White, washable “school” glue. - Paper. - Liquid water color. - Bowl for mixing each color separately. - Brushes for applying glue, one for each color. - Collage materials for gluing: feathers, tissue, leaves, pom-poms, etc.

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- Gather collage materials, either in one central basket or bowl or in individual ones. - Pour about one-quarter cup of glue into each small mixing bowl. - Add drops of liquid color until desired color is reached. - Stir with a brush. - Offer each child a choice of paper to begin with. - Let each child choose a color of glue and collage materials to glue to the paper. - Respond to children’s attempts to stick things onto the paper, using phrases like these: -- “Where did you want that red piece?” -- -- “Try the glue first.” -- “How does it feel?” -- “What happened this time?”

- Offer alternatives for toddlers who are not interested in this experience. (Some will not like the mess.) - Use phrases like this to help the children control the glue: -- “Glue is for the paper and collage materials, not the walls or floor.”

To provide new experiences and interactions with new materials. To promote participation within the classroom community. Experiment with things that stick and things that don't.

90



Implement Painting

1999

Fran Hast and Ann Hollyfield

Art

Infant and Toddler Experiences

Gross-motor

Infant/Toddler

18-24 Months

Implement Painting

- A variety of implements to paint with: feather dusters, plastic pizza cutters, rubber band brushes, toothbrushes, combs, sponges of different shapes, whisks, potato mashers, cookie cutters, and so forth. The possibilities are limited only by your imagination. - Paper to paint on. - Tempera paint. You may need to mix it thicker than usual to cling to some implements. - Flat containers for paint, large enough to accommodate implements (meat trays or plastic plates work well), one for each color. - Smocks or paint shirts to protect clothing.

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- Gather a small group of toddlers (no more than four). As you put on smocks and/or remove clothes, explain that “instead of brushes, today we’re going to use something different to put the paint on the paper.” - Offer a choice of paint colors, a single implement, and one tray of paint to each child. - When toddlers want to trade colors of paint and implements, help them by facilitating their conversations by saying something like “Ray would like to trade for the pizza cutter when you are finished using it.” - Reflect children’s experience: “say what you see” and compare what they’re doing to painting with a brush.

- Help children keep the paint where it belongs, using phrases like “Paint goes on the paper.”

Gives Toddlers experience experimenting with cause and effect.

97



String Painting

1999

Fran Hast and Ann Hollyfield

Art

Infant and Toddler Experiences

Gross-motor

Infant/Toddler

18-24 Months

String Painting

- Lengths of string about 12 inches long for each color of paint used; have extras available. (A “handle” may be made by taping one end of the string, but be aware that the toddlers may try to paint with it; it can draw attention away from the string manipulation.) - Washable powdered tempera paint in various colors. - Glue. - Liquid starch. - Paper of various sizes, shapes, and colors. - Wax paper or plastic lids to place strings on between uses. - Spray bottles and towels for clean up. - Smocks or paint shirts. - Shallow bowls or trays for the paint.

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- Mix the washable powdered tempera with water, glue, or starch to a fairly thick (pudding-like) consistency. The first time you do this experience, you may have to experiment a bit to find the thickness that works for you. - Put each color of paint in a shallow bowl or pan so it’s easy to dip strings into it. - Set up space for four toddlers to paint at a table. Have several lengths of string and colors of paint and paper available so you can offer each toddler a choice of materials. - Have smocks or paint shirts ready, or plan to take children’s clothes off to keep them from getting paint-smeared. - As children come to the table to paint, explain that painting with string is another way to put paint onto the paper. - Allow the toddlers to choose the paint color, string, and paper they want to begin with. - Instead of trying to show them how to paint with the string, let them experiment and watch what they do.

- Remind children that “Paint and strings are for the paper.” - Facilitate trading and taking turns with the paint colors and strings.

Gives Toddlers practice in two-handed manipulation and hand-eye coordination

245



Cooking

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

12-18 Months

Cooking

Safe, toddler-size kitchen items

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Collect realistic, safe, toddler-size kitchen items, such as pots, pans, lids, wooden spoons, spatulas, and food containers. Sit up a play area with a toddler-size refrigerator, stove, sink, table, and chairs. Ask the toddlers what they eat at home or ask their parents. Collect food boxes that are representative of the food the toddlers eat at home and encourage them to pretend to cook it. For example, model how to pretend to fry an egg or stir a bowl of cake batter.

Collect clean, small plastic jars with lids. Punch holes in the lids. Infuse cotton balls with the scents of common spices that the toddlers’ families use in cooking. For example, put a drop of vanilla on a cotton ball or lightly dust one with ground ginger. Some common herbs and spices families may use are cinnamon, nutmeg, cumin, basil, and oregano. Put the cotton balls in the jars and secure the lids with glue. Talk with the toddlers about the different smells and put the jars in the cooking area for the toddlers to use. Be sure to check with families about children’s food allergies.

- to provide opportunities for pretend play - to promote connections between families and the classroom

95



Learning the Names of Things

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

12-18 Months

Learning the Names of Things

Hand puppet or stuffed animal

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0

Use a hand puppet or stuffed animal to play a naming game with one or more toddlers. Have the puppet ask each toddler, “What is your name?” Pause and wait for the child to respond. If she does not answer, say for her, “My name is ____?” Have the puppet ask other questions such as “What are those?” and point to the child’s hands or feet. Wait for her to answer and then answer for her if she does not.

Encourage two or more toddlers to sit together as you play the game with them. Call each child by name.

- to promote language and communication development - to promote social interactions

97



Looking at a Book with Another Toddler

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

12-18 Months

Looking at a Book with Another Toddler

Sturdy picture books

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Sit on the floor with two or more toddlers and look at a sturdy picture book together. Point to and talk about the pictures in the book. Use gestures and sounds, tone of voice, and changes in volume to make the book interesting. Encourage the toddlers to sit near one another and to point and talk about the pictures. As the toddlers’ attention spans increase, add books with longer stories. Books with rhyming words and repetition are especially enjoyable for toddlers. Read these books over and over to help the toddlers begin to remember the rhymes and repetitions. These types of activities are pre-literacy skills and steps in learning to read.

Sit on the floor in an area where toddlers are playing. Look at books with one or more toddlers as they come and go around you. Let the toddlers decide if they want to look at the book or to do something else.

- to promote social interaction - to promote the development of social skills

99



Making a Play House

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Gross-motor

Infant/Toddler

12-18 Months

Making a Play House

Large cardboard boxes

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Collect some large cardboard boxes from an appliance or electronics store. Remove any sharp staples or pieces of metal. Cut windows and doors in the boxes to make several playhouses. Encourage the toddlers to go in and out of the box houses. Pretend that one toddler lives there and another comes to visit. Call each toddler by name and engage them in visiting one another in their box houses. Pretend and model how to knock on the door and how to ask, “May I come in?” Model other social interaction phrases, such as, “I had a nice visit with you” or “Thank you for letting me visit your house.” Learn greetings and other words in a toddler’s home language. Model these for the toddlers.

Pull off two- or three-inch pieces of masking tape in different colors and stick them on a plastic tray near the box house. Show the toddlers how to pull the pieces of tape off the tray and stick them onto the box houses, pretending to put siding or bricks on the houses. Monitor to make sure the children do not put pieces of tape in their mouths. Encourage two or more toddlers to work on a box house together. Call each child by name and describe how each is working together to cover the box house. Use descriptive words and action words as the toddlers play. Name the colors of tape as the toddlers stick them to the box house. Learn descriptive words in a toddler’s home language and use these words as he plays in the box house.

- to promote participation in a group classroom project - to promote feelings of competence - to promote feelings of connectedness to the classroom community

106



Learning About My Body

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

18-24 Months

Learning About My Body

Crayons Large sheets of paper

0

0

Use a crayon to trace each toddler’s hands onto a large sheet of paper. Count his fingers as you draw. Have crayons of different skin-tone colors available for the toddlers to color their hands if they want. Note that toddlers should not be required to color inside lines. Scribbling all around and on the drawn hands is the focus of this activity. Write the child’s name on his hand picture. Put the hand pictures on the wall at toddlers’ eye level where the toddlers can see and talk about them.

Tape a large piece of paper to the top of a low table, inside or outside. Put different flesh-colored tones of paint in plastic containers large enough for toddlers to put both hands in at the same time. Put a painting smock or old shirt on the toddler before he dips his hands into the paint. Show him how to put his hands in the paint and to make prints on the sheet of paper. Let the toddlers do this two at a time. Have a place for them to wash and dry their hands nearby before taking off their paint smock. When they’re dry, display the hand-print paintings at the children’s eye level. Point out the different colors, sizes, and types of hand-prints and talk with the toddlers about them.

- to promote awareness of bodies - to teach the names of body parts - to promote the development of a positive sense of self

117



Families

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

18-24 Months

Families

Photographs from magazines or online of many different families

0

0

Collect photographs from magazines or online that are of many different families and people—including same-sex parents, grandparents raising grandchildren, mixed race families, and families from cultures that reflect those of the children in the classroom. Include people with disabilities, young people, old people, and children. Laminate the photographs. Make a collage or picture wall at the toddlers’ eye level. Talk with the toddlers about things families do together, who the family members are, where they live, what they eat, and how they play. Talk with toddlers about how people look different and about their skin colors, hair, eye shapes and colors, facial features, and other characteristics.

Create picture books from the photographs for the toddlers to explore. Sit with the toddlers and look at the books.

- to promote connections to families - to promote the development of a positive sense of self

121



Cultural Nursery Rhymes

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

18-24 Months

Cultural Nursery Rhymes

Nursery rhymes from home cultures Large nursery rhyme picture books

0

0

Ask families to share nursery rhymes from their home cultures. Collect large nursery rhyme picture books or find large pictures that illustrate a variety of nursery rhymes. Sit with one or more toddlers and read or say two or three nursery rhymes, showing them the book illustrations or pictures. If the nursery rhyme mentions body parts or body movements, act them out. Use gestures and facial expressions. As toddlers begin to show preference for certain rhymes, say and act these out often during different times of the day—inside, outside, or during daily routines. Toddlers learn through repetition and enjoy hearing favorite rhymes and stories over and over.

Play recordings of nursery rhymes and act them out with the toddlers. Invite families to make recordings of themselves saying nursery rhymes in their home languages.

- to promote language development - to promote early literacy skills

122



Rolling a Ball

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

18-24 Months

Rolling a Ball

Several balls of different sizes, colors, and weights

0

0

Collect several balls of different sizes, colors, and weights. Select a ball and sit on the floor a few feet in front of two toddlers. Roll the ball to one of the toddlers, calling her by name. Encourage her to roll it back to you. Then say, “Now it is Jack’s turn” and roll the ball to the other child. Describe what you are doing: “I’m rolling the ball to Jack. Roll it back to me.” Encourage turn taking and promote interaction as the toddlers learn to play near and with one another. It may be helpful to have two balls, one for each toddler, when you first begin teaching this activity.

Alternate pairings of toddlers so that they all have an opportunity to get to know and play near each child in the classroom. Call each child by name as you play with the ball(s). Learn the word ball in each child’s home language and alternate using it with the English word as you play with the toddlers.

- to promote the development of gross- and fine-motor skills - to promote social development

125



Growing Taller

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

18-24 Months

Growing Taller

Large strip of paper

0

0

Toddlers begin to get taller during this time, and they feel proud of how tall they are and what they can do. Put a large strip of paper on the wall to use as a place to measure each toddler’s height, writing the children’s names on the measurements. Talk with each toddler about how tall she is. After measuring all the children, encourage two or three toddlers to stand together with their backs to their measurements on the paper. Take a photograph of the toddlers by their measurements. Laminate the photograph onto cardboard and write each child’s name on the front. Make a classroom album of the photographs. Keep the album in an area where the toddlers can look at it during the day. Talk with the toddlers and call each child by name as you point to her photograph.

Repeat the above activity every three to four months so that children can see how much they have grown. You could also weigh the children on a scale and record their weight on their photograph along with their height measurement.

- to promote the development of a positive sense of self - to promote social development

130



Quiet Place

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

2-Year

Quiet Place

Materials as needed

0

0

Create a quiet place for the toddlers to retreat to when they need time to calm themselves or to be away from the action of a busy classroom. A large plastic bin with low sides that a toddler can climb into or a large box turned on its side work well. Hang a soft, sheer piece of fabric over the plastic bin to create a see-through tent. Cover the inside of the space with a soft blanket or rug. Include a couple of pillows, stuffed animals, and a book or two. Toddlers may want to select a special stuffed toy or book to take with them to the quiet place. Introduce the quiet place as an area where a child decides for himself when he wants to go there. For example, say, “Sometimes I get upset and can’t think. Everyone feels like this sometimes. I go to a quiet place to calm down. When I feel better and I am ready to be with other people, then I come out of the quiet place.” You can act this out for the child, pretending to be sad, mad, or upset in some way. Go to the quiet place and hold a stuffed animal or look at a book for a few seconds. Then say, “I feel better. I calmed myself and I’m ready to play again.” You should be able to see the child at all times, including when he is in the quiet place. The quiet place should never be used as punishment. The idea is for toddlers to begin to recognize their feelings and personal needs to calm themselves, to regain self-control, and to monitor their own behavior.

When children are playing outside, they may also need a place to go to where they can calm themselves. A large, clean plastic barrel that has been turned on its side and stabilized with boards or stones laid beside it on the ground to keep it from rolling is one idea. Put a soft indoor-outdoor rug inside of the barrel. In preparing the outdoor quiet place, you might have the toddlers paint or decorate the outside of the barrel as an outdoor project.

- to promote emotional development - to promote the development of a positive sense of self - to promote the ability to self-regulate

138



My Family and Pets

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

2-Year

My Family and Pets

Photographs of children, their home, and their pets Photo albums for each child

0

0

Ask families to bring photographs of themselves and their children, their home, pets, and special objects. Create a family photo album for each toddler. Label each family member, pet, and object in the album. For children whose home language is not English, include names and descriptions in both the home language and English. Sit with a child and let him go through his album and tell you about his family. Learn the names of objects pictured in the album in the child’s home language. Use descriptive words and questions to engage him in talking about himself and his family. Help him feel pride about himself and his family. Keep the photograph albums in a container on a low shelf or table where the children can look at them during playtime. Observe the toddlers to see how they describe themselves and their families to other children.

Use a photograph of a child and a separate photograph of his family to make a matching game. Laminate or cover each photo with a plastic sleeve. Keep the photographs in a container on a low shelf or table where the children can play with them and match one another to their families.

- to promote connections to family and pets - to promote the development of a positive sense of self

142



Find Our Friends

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

2-Year

Find Our Friends

No additional materials are needed for this activity.

0

0

Play a variation of the game hide-and-seek with the toddlers to teach them the names of other children and to emphasize the value of friends and of each child in the classroom. Play the game with two toddlers to begin with and increase the number of children as they get older. Tell the children you are going to play Find Our Friends. Close your eyes and count to ten while the children hide. When you finish counting, say, “I am looking for my friends. Here I come.” As you find a child, say, “I found my friend Crystal. Now we are looking for our friend Max. Here we come.” Look for the other child. When you find him, say, “We found all our friends, Max and Crystal.” Play the game again.

Play the game outside and hold hands with the children as you find them. Make a chain of people holding hands as you look for other hiding children. When you find everyone, make a circle, say, “We found all of our friends,” and name each child.

- to promote cognitive development - to promote social development

147



Digging in West Sand

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

2-Year

Digging in West Sand

Sandbox Water

0

0

Digging in wet sand is a good way for toddlers to work alongside other toddlers and also have a sensory experience that helps build motor skills. On a warm day, add a bucket or more of water to the sandbox outside. Provide shovels for digging, containers for scooping and modeling, big dump trucks, and other sandbox toys. Encourage two or more toddlers to play with the sand and use parallel talk to describe what they are doing. Call each child by name and encourage social interactions.

Add large dinosaurs, farm animals, and other animals to the sandbox play area. Encourage the toddlers to make animal sounds as they move the animals around and build landscapes.

- to promote the development of gross- and fine-motor skills - to promote social development

151



Collecting Rocks, Leaves, and Twigs

2018

Carla Goble

Social-Emotional

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

2-Year

Collecting Rocks, Leaves, and Twigs

Clear plastic bag to collect objects in nature

0

0

Take a nature walk outside with the toddlers. Give each toddler a clear plastic bag to collect small rocks, leaves, or other objects found in nature. Write each toddler’s name on his bag with a permanent marker. As you walk, talk with the toddlers about the things they see. Encourage each toddler to add a few things to his bag. Back in the classroom, tape the bags of found nature objects on the wall or on a large display board at toddlers’ eye level.

Create a classroom nature area where toddlers can explore the items they have found. Invite each toddler to take one thing from his bag to share with the class. Make sure that all items are safe and that none present a choking hazard.

- to promote the development of gross- and fine-motor skills - to promote cognitive development - to promote social development

156



Exploring Textures

2018

Carla Goble

Art

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Gross-motor

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Exploring Textures

Non-toxic glue Cardboard squares Different textured materials

0

0

Using nontoxic glue, cover cardboard squares with different textured materials, such as sandpaper, velvet, corduroy, fluffy fleece, and satin. Punch holes along one edge of each square and ring them together to make a touch book. Make several books with different textures and colors of materials. Make books with two contrasting materials on each page or cut small shapes out of the background material and glue contrasting texture in the space. Sit with an infant and show him the book. Show him how to feel the pages as you talk about what he feels. Use descriptive words such as rough, smooth, soft, shiny, and ridges. Place the books on a low shelf, in a container, or on the floor where infants can hold and explore them on their own. The children will put books in their mouths, so make sure there are no loose pieces. Discard books as they become worn.

Sit with two babies and look at the touch books together. Call each infant by name and encourage them to let each other feel a page in both books. Ask, “May I touch your book?” Pause and wait for the child to indicate a response. Teach babies sign language, words, and gestures to communicate yes or no. Touch a page in the baby’s book and talk about how it feels. Say, “Thank you for letting me touch the page.”

- to promote tactile learning experiences in the classroom environment - to promote exploration

81



Painting Outdoors

2018

Carla Goble

Art

Infant-Toddler Social Studies

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

18-24 Months

Painting Outdoors

Large pieces of paper Non-toxic finger paints

0

0

After the toddlers have had some experience finger painting with shaving cream, set up an outdoor painting area. On a warm day, when the toddlers are playing outside, tape very large pieces of finger painting paper, butcher’s paper, or waxed paper to a low table. Use finger paints that are safe for toddlers. Use old adult shirts as painting smocks. Before starting this activity, have all materials ready, including a plan for how the toddlers will wash their hands when they finish painting. Encourage two toddlers at a time to move the paint around on the paper with their fingers and hands. Encourage each toddler in the group to paint on the paper. Hang the finger paintings to dry. When they’re dry, hang the class finger paintings in the room where the toddlers can see them. Talk with the children about what they did and how they all worked on it, along with the colors, shapes, and textures of the paintings.

Teach the toddlers how to put on and take off the painting smocks and how to wash and dry their hands. These self-help skills address toddlers’ need for autonomy, boosting their self-confidence and promoting a positive sense of self.

- to promote the ability to play near others - to promote feelings of connectedness through common play

103



Tummy Time Discovery Painting

2017

Jean Barbre

Art

Baby Steps to STEM

Gross-motor

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Tummy Time Discovery Painting

- white piece of construction paper - colors of washable tempera paint - gallon resealable freezer bag - scissors - masking tape or duct tape

0

0

Getting Ready Place drops of tempera paint on the paper. Place the paper in the freezer bag and seal it shut. Place tape on all four sides of the bag and securely tape it to the floor. How To Place the baby on a slight incline so the baby can reach the bag. Let the baby explore the bag and manipulate the paint. Warning: Babies can wiggle out of their tummy time spot, so keep an eye on them. Use a heavy-duty freezer bag and tape it securely to the floor. Tape it on a hard flooring surface rather than carpet.

- For older children, tape the bag to a sliding glass door or window and let them play. - Repeat the activity when the child is old enough to sit in a high chair.

Children will explore the physical properties of mixing colors as they use their hands to manipulate the paints inside a plastic freezer storage bag.

156



Flower Bracelets

2017

Jean Barbre

Art

Baby Steps to STEM

Gross-motor

Infant/Toddler

18-24 Months

Flower Bracelets

- masking tape - scissors - items found on a nature walk for decorating the bracelet

0

0

Measure and cut a piece of masking tape to fit loosely around a toddler’s wrist. Tape the ends together, sticky side out. Go for a walk outdoors and invite the children to pick up fallen flowers or leaves and place them on the sticky side of the tape. Ask them to smell the flowers and leaves that they found. Ask them to describe what they see and smell. Remind them not to put any of the flowers or leaves in their mouths. Hint: If you are working with infants, you may want to put the tape on your own wrist, so they can see what you’ve collected. Be sure to closely supervise young children to make sure they don’t place small objects in their mouths.

Bring two or three different kinds of flowers to class and let the children examine them. They can smell them, feel them, and examine their petals using a magnifying glass. Place the flowers in a vase and set them on a table.

Children will explore and gain a respect for the outdoor environment and an awareness of living things, such as plants and flowers. They will explore elements of both life science and earth science.

88



Mirror, Mirror on the Wall

2017

Jean Barbre

Art

Baby Steps to STEM

STEM

Infant/Toddler

12-18 Months

Mirror, Mirror on the Wall

- large framed mirror - drop cloth or plastic tablecloth - washable tempera paints - small plastic containers - paintbrushes

0

0

Getting Ready Secure a large framed mirror either on a wall or against a wall. Place it where there is natural lighting for the children. Place a drop cloth or plastic tablecloth below the mirror. Place washable tempera paints in a small plastic containers. How To Children will be mixing colors to get new colors by painting on the mirror. They can use their hands or paintbrushes to paint. At first, the children will see their reflection in the mirror, but eventually, the mirror will be covered with paint. Hint: For young toddlers, use an acrylic mirror for this activity. The acrylic mirror is lighter and shatter resistant.

- When the children have finished painting and the paint is still wet, create a monoprint. Do this by placing a piece of white construction paper against the wet mirror and rubbing the back of the paper. As you gently pull the paper away from the mirror, you will see a copy of the original art. - When the paint has dried, give the children sponges and water to clean the mirror. The cleanup can be as fun as the painting!

Children will gain an understanding of reflection and of blending and mixing colors. They will explore their senses as they paint with their hands.

112



Ball Painting

2017

Jean Barbre

Art

Baby Steps to STEM

Social-Emotional

Infant/Toddler

2-Year

Ball Painting

- small plastic swimming pool - white butcher paper - scissors - masking tape - liquid watercolor paints - 4 or 5 different-size rubber balls - bucket with soap and water for cleanup

0

0

Getting Ready Purchase a small plastic swimming pool if needed. How To Cut butcher paper to fit the bottom of the swimming pool and extend up the sides. Place a loop of folded- over tape in the middle and along the sides of the pool to help secure the paper. Place different colors of liquid watercolor paint on the paper. Let the children place the balls in the swimming pool. Ask three or four children at a time to hold on to the edge of the pool and help roll the ball back and forth. Children will gain a sense of their own bodies as they lift and lower the sides of the pool. Repeat the activity with clean paper so another group of children can join in the fun. Hint: This can be a bit messy, so have children wear play clothes for this activity. Have buckets of soap and water handy for cleanup.

Remove the balls and leave the painted paper inside the pool. Capture the children’s footprints by asking three or four children to stand inside the pool. Brush liquid watercolor on their feet. Help them step out of the pool and walk on new pieces of white paper to capture their footprints.

Children will gain an understanding of motion, cause and effect, and blending colors as they lift the sides of a plastic swimming pool.

56



Twig Painting

2017

Jean Barbre

Art

Baby Steps to STEM

Gross-motor

Infant/Toddler

2-Year

Twig Painting

- liquid tempera paint in fall colors - small containers for paint - twigs and branches, about 4–8 inches in length - magnifying glasses - white construction paper - masking tape - water and paper towels for cleanup

0

0

Getting Ready Place yellow, orange, brown, and green liquid tempera paints in small containers. How To Place the collected twigs on a table. Invite the children to touch and feel the twigs. Talk to them about what they see and feel. Model how they can use a magnifying glass to examine the bark of the twigs more closely. Tape one or two small twigs on a white piece of construction paper and give one sheet to each child. Invite the children to dip their fingers into the paint and use finger print marks to add fall leaves around the edges of the twigs. Hint: You may want to collect twigs ahead of time in case you only find a few on your nature walk. Be sure to closely supervise young children to make sure they don’t place small objects in their mouths.

- Repeat this activity in the spring and paint with colors representing leaves and flowers. - Give each child a twig to paint. Place a variety of colors on the table for painting. Once the paint on the twigs has dried, place all the twigs in a jar on the table for the children to enjoy.

Children will gain a sense of life and earth science as they collect twigs on a nature walk. They will observe and explore the leaves and flowers on plants and trees on their walk.

160



Baby Bubble Fun

2017

Jean Barbre

STEM

Baby Steps to STEM

Fine-motor

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Baby Bubble Fun

- liquid bubble soap - water - large tub or an empty sensory table - heavy- duty paint aprons or smocks - towels

0

0

Place a small amount of liquid bubble soap in the bottom of the tub and fill with water. Swish your hands around to make as many bubbles as possible. Let the children watch as you make the bubbles. Show the children how you can lift the bubbles up and make mounds and small sculptures. Demonstrate how you can squeeze the bubbles between your fingers. Invite a few children at a time to play and create bubble sculptures. Show the children how to blow on the bubbles and watch how they float in the air.

Place toys such as a rubber duck, baby doll, plastic manipulative, or plastic farm animal in the water. Let the children experiment with items that float and sink.

Children will explore the physical properties of water and the elasticity and shape of bubbles.

52



Here We Go

2017

Jean Barbre

STEM

Baby Steps to STEM

Fine-motor

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Here We Go

- Select a variety of push and pull toys, such as trucks, cars, planes, balls, buggies, wagons, and shopping carts. Toys should have a basket or container large enough to carry items. - Toys and items to place in the push and pull toys, such as small balls, soft plush toys, dolls, cars, trucks, plastic animals

0

0

Provide children with a variety of large and small push and pull toys. Identify the name and parts of each toy. Model for young children how to place items inside the toy. Count the toy items as children place them in the cart. Choose toys that can be used in both indoor and outdoor areas. Include large, sturdy push and pull toys that can help stabilize children who are learning to walk and stand on their own.

Set small toys, such as cars, trucks, and balls in baskets or containers that are easily accessible for play in all the learning centers, both inside and outside. Model how children can incorporate these toys with other play materials. For example, you could help the children build ramps out of blocks and show them how they can roll and push the cars down the ramp.

Children will gain a sense of the properties of physical science and simple machines, such as the push and pull of a cart or wheeled toy. They will gain number sense and operations as they place items inside the cart and then remove them.

94



Hole in One

2017

Jean Barbre

STEM

Baby Steps to STEM

Gross-motor

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Hole in One

- large stacking rings - pegboards - sorting cubes or buckets

0

0

Place either stacking rings or a pegboard in front of each child, along with some sorting cubes or buckets. Model how to place the rings on their post, the pegs in the pegboard, and rings and pegs into the sorting cubes or buckets. Talk about how there is a hole or space in the toy where the items are to be placed. At this age, the task for young children is to just explore how to place the rings, insert the pegs, or place the items into the sorting cube. Identify the colors and shapes being used, but don’t expect young children to get them in the correct order. Hint: Offer one toy at a time. Children will just be exploring the materials and gaining a sense of where to place items on the pegboard or stacking ring.

- Help the child sort items by color or shape. Count the pegs or rings as the child engages in the activity. - Separate the items by colors or shapes. Focus on one color at a time, and have the child identify another object that is the same color. In this modification, just introduce the concept of different colors, but don’t expect the child to understand color differentiation.

Children will experience understanding of number sense, operations, cause and effect, and one- to- one correspondence by playing with a pegboard or a stacking ring.

96



Let's Play Ball

2017

Jean Barbre

STEM

Baby Steps to STEM

Gross-motor

Infant/Toddler

Birth-6 Months

Let's Play Ball

Soft or rubber balls of various sizes. Select larger balls for younger children. Be sure the ball is large enough that the child cannot swallow or choke on it. Use smaller balls as the child gets older and develops more motor skills and dexterity.

0

0

Sit on the floor with the child. Have your feet touching or almost touching the child’s feet. With two hands roll the ball toward the child. Verbally describe what you are doing. Repeat the activity with the child rolling the ball toward you. Use different- sized balls for added learning opportunities. Repeat the above activity with two or three children sitting in a circle with their feet touching. Ask the children to roll the ball to the child across from them. When they have mastered this task, add a second, smaller ball into the circle.

- Alternate between rolling and bouncing balls. You may need more space for this extended activity. - Other objects such as small cars or trucks can be used for rolling. Model how to set up a small incline plane so they can see how balls and trucks can roll faster with an incline.

Babies and toddlers are being introduced to the physical science property of motion as they roll and bounce balls. They are learning to classify the differences between objects as they play this activity.

104



Liquid Sensory Bottles

2017

Jean Barbre

STEM

Baby Steps to STEM

STEM

Infant/Toddler

Preschool/KG

Liquid Sensory Bottles

- several clean, empty 16.9- ounce clear plastic water bottles - water - a few small rocks, toys, or heavy balls that can fit inside the water bottles - vegetable oil - food coloring - funnel - scissors - colored duct tape - dish-washing soap, optional

0

0

Getting Ready Fill each bottle three-quarters full with water. How To Place the plastic bottle on a flat surface and set the funnel on top. Toddlers or younger children can take turns holding the bottle while you pour vegetable oil through the funnel. Toddlers and twos can help pour the vegetable oil into the funnel with assistance. Drop food coloring in the bottle and then drop the rocks or heavy balls into the bottle. Ask the children to watch as the items fall through the funnel into the bottle. Cut the colored duct tape and seal the top securely. Let the children examine and shake the sensory bottle. Hint: If you wish to make a bubble sensory bottle, add 2 tablespoons of dish-washing soap. Be sure to closely supervise young children to make sure they don’t place small objects in their mouths.

- Create a second liquid sensory bottle and eliminate the food coloring. To experiment with light, place the clear sensory bottle in front of an incandescent light or on a light table to observe the difference between the colored bottle and the clear one. - Discuss the movement of the floating rocks or heavy objects, after the addition of the light.

Children will examine the physical properties of motion while observing objects as they sink or float inside the bottle.

108



Look What Absorbs!

2017

Jean Barbre

STEM

Baby Steps to STEM

Fine-motor

Infant/Toddler

18-24 Months

Look What Absorbs!

- magnifying glasses - eyedroppers - small container of water - plastic tray - materials to test absorption, such as paper towels, small white paper plates, white coffee filters, cotton balls, aluminum foil, wax paper, sponges, plastic storage lids, small plastic toys - clipboard - towels for cleanup

0

0

Getting Ready Collect items for testing and examining. Demonstrate to the children how to use a magnifying glass and an eyedropper. How To Fill a plastic container with water. Select a variety of different materials, such as small white paper plates, white coffee filters, cotton balls, aluminum foil, wax paper, and plastic storage lids, to test to see if they will absorb water or not and place on a plastic tray. Let the children examine and discuss each of the materials prior to testing. Share with the children how the different objects feel. Have the children use a magnifying glass to examine the objects up close. Ask the children which objects they hypothesize will absorb the water. Document the children’s predictions and findings on the clipboard. Invite the children to use the eyedroppers to drip water on the objects. Invite the children to investigate how water changes or doesn’t change the surface of the object. Line all the different materials on a table and discuss what children experienced. Count the number of objects that absorb water and those that did not. Document the children’s comments and findings on your clipboard. Hint: Be sure to closely supervise young children to make sure they don’t place small objects in their mouths.

- Place a few drops of one food coloring in a small container of water. Ask the children to make predictions about what might happen as they add a second color to the water. Discuss that the two colors blend and get absorbed in the water. Discuss with the children what color they made when they added two colors together. For example, red and yellow will make orange. - Have the children go for a hunt around the room to see what additional materials they would like to test for water absorption. Ask if they think the cement walkway will absorb the water. Ask the children if their skin will absorb water or not. Test out their answers.

Children will have opportunities to explore how different materials absorb water and the rate at which the water is absorbed.

110