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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Embracing Rough-and-Tumble Play olds to sit without ﬁdgeting or squirming, expectations that were once reserved for elementary school students. Meanwhile elementary school students often go to after-school programs where they are expected to sit after a full day of sit- ting in classes. This mistrust of movement has affected regulatory agencies that focus on safety at the expense of wellness that children achieve through physical play. Higher education has also failed to emphasize the importance of movement for all learning when training our future teachers. We need systemic change in the various state licensing regulations and in the education of future teachers of young children if we are to allow children to become active learners. Terminology: Rough-and-Tumble, Big Body Play, and Body in Mind Rough-and-tumble play is often misunderstood. People often immediately think of a classroom in complete chaos with children knocking one another over. It is important to remember that it is play, not ﬁghting; it is fun for all those involved. Psychologist Harry Harlow used the term rough-and-tumble play to describe the play of rhesus monkeys in the 1950s (DeBenedet and Cohen 2010). He observed and described how they chased one another and grabbed, pushed, and tumbled. This type of play is all around us. You can see dogs do the same thing. Research has been slowly building on rough-and-tumble play. The research has shown that there are many beneﬁts from rough-and-tumble play in terms of cognitive, social, and physical development (DeBenedet and Cohen 2010). One time I was with a class of toddlers at the zoo. I was bringing two of the children back to the bus. The path followed the edge of the wolf pen. As we approached, a wolf was stand- ing just on the other side of the fence. The toddlers were face-to-face with the wolf. Their eyes seemed to meet. The toddlers smiled. The wolf ran away, but two or three strides in, it stopped and looked at the children. They knew what to do. They ran after the wolf. The wolf would run, but every few steps it would slow down until the toddlers were just a few feet away, and then it would run. When it reached the other end of the path, the wolf waited until the toddlers caught up and then ran back the other way. The children and the wolf clearly knew how to play chase without uttering a word. Looking back, I realize that it also started with the children and the wolf looking at one another’s faces to signal that a game was happening. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL 11