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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM ON PHONE OR TABLET 8     Chapter 1 characters, settings, plots, themes, problems, and solutions, and typically we predict that the problem might be resolved closer to the end. Children who have experiences with story retelling internalize the conceptual story map and apply it to the stories they have learned. Morrow found that story retellers in kindergarten and first grade applied structural elements of story when asked to dictate original stories (1996). Morrow further reports that story retelling builds sum- marizing skills. Inevitably, when children retell stories, they must be able to communicate effectively the gist of the story in the retelling (2015). Researchers Brainerd and Renya (1993) studied two types of memory in childhood: verbatim memory (remembering particular, perhaps even exact, details), and gist (the essential idea). The research indicates that children of all ages are capable of obtaining gist. Younger children, how- ever, characteristically tend to “store and retrieve verbatim memory traces,” which are defined as “precise details of the information” and are not as enduring as gist (Santrock 2012, 359). Although story retelling is not summarizing, it relies on summarizing skills and capturing gist in the retelling, which may be more challenging for very young children. Knowing that capturing the gist of story is more difficult for young children provides us with further rationale for using a devel- opmental perspective in teaching story-retelling strategies to young children. It also rationalizes using props and visual aids with young children. Gibson, Gold, and Sgouros suggest that story retelling This teacher and her young students are or- ganizing for a story enactment by identifying demonstrates what children remember. They also suggest that how many children are in the group and how story retelling requires children to reconstruct and reflect on many characters are in the book. text. Children may distinguish words and consider meanings as they reconstruct and retell. “Retellings require children to think more conceptually—to look at the bigger picture—rather than answering specific questions about the text” (2003, 2). Similarly, Morrow indicates that story retelling promotes organization of thought. Both Morrow and Owocki advocate for quality teacher facilitation in moving children toward organized thinking about story (2015; 1999). Orga- nized thinking about story results from meaningful and intentional discussions over stories. Teachers organize key elements of story when asking about char- acters or requesting sequence of events, for example. Story retelling engages children and adults in active discussions (Morrow 1996). A proponent of positive interactions with young children in literacy-rich environments, Morrow promotes modeling responses if children are not able to supply them to teachers. Modeling is an effective strategy to promote lan- guage use among nonresponders and English-language learners. Morrow further indicates that story retelling provides a venue for demon- strating and discussing text-to-self connections (2015). Most preschool chil- dren are able to make connections between narrative text and themselves with COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL