DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Roots and 3rd Edition Wings Affirming Culture and Preventing Bias in Early Childhood S TACE Y YO R K COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Roots and Wings COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Roots and 3rd Edition Wings Affirming Culture and Preventing Bias in Early Childhood STAC EY YOR K COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Published by Redleaf Press 10 Yorkton Court St. Paul, MN 55117 www.redleafpress.org © 2003, 2016 by Stacey York All rights reserved. Unless otherwise noted on a specific page, no portion of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or capturing on any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages in a critical article or review to be printed in a magazine or newspaper, or electronically transmitted on radio, television, or the Internet. Third edition 2016 Cover design by Erin Kirk New Cover photographs by Rawpixel Ltd. / iStock / ThinkStock Interior design by Percolator Typeset in Expo Serif Pro Interior photos: iii, upper Andy Dean / Hemera / Thinkstock; iii, lower Pixelheadphoto / iStock / Thinkstock; p7 Rawpixel Ltd / iStock / Thinkstock; p9 Rawpixel Ltd / iStock / Thinkstock; p27 Purestock / Thinkstock; p55 anirav / iStock / Thinkstock; p85 Rawpixel Ltd / iStock / Thinkstock; p115 Mark Hunt / Hemera / Thinkstock; p147 nicolesy / iStock / Thinkstock; p171 Rawpixel Ltd / iStock / Thinkstock; p173 Rawpixel Ltd / iStock / Thinkstock; p197 monkeybusinessimages / iStock / Thinkstock; p239 Rawpixel Ltd / iStock / Thinkstock; p251 Rawpixel Ltd / iStock / Thinkstock; p267 STEFANOLUNARI / iStock / Thinkstock; p291 monkeybusiness­images / iStock / Thinkstock; p309 Rawpixel Ltd / iStock / Thinkstock; p329 MilicaStankovic iStock / Thinkstock Printed in the United States of America 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Library of Congress Cataloging-​in-​Publication Data Names: York, Stacey, 1957– Title: Roots and wings : affirming culture in early childhood / Stacey York. Description: St. Paul, MN : Redleaf Press, 2016. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016003529 (print) | LCCN 2016006435 (ebook) | ISBN 9781605544557 (paperback) | ISBN 9781605544564 () Subjects: LCSH: Early childhood education—​Activity programs—​United States. | Multicultural education—​Activity programs—​United States. | Curriculum planning—​United States. | BISAC: EDUCATION / Multicultural Education. | EDUCATION / Teaching Methods & Materials / General. | EDUCATION / Preschool & Kindergarten. | SOCIAL SCIENCE / Ethnic Studies / General. Classification: LCC LB1139.35.A37 Y675 2016 (print) | LCC LB1139.35.A37 (ebook) | DDC 372.21—​dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2016003529 Printed on acid-​free paper COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET This book is dedicated to my family of origin: Cornelia Marilee Bijland William Edwin York Maria Strooker Bijland Martinus Bijland Essie Octavia Tillery York Marion Nicholas York COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Contents Acknowledgments   ix Introduction   1 7 PART I Understanding Multicultural and Anti-​bias Issues in the Classroom Chapter 1: Teaching in a Diverse Society 171 9 Chapter 2: Children and Prejudice 25 Chapter 3: Racism 51 Chapter 4: Culturally Responsive Care and Education 77 Chapter 5: Young Dual-​Language Learners 105 Chapter 6: Family, Culture, and Community 133 PART II Implementing Culturally Relevant Anti-​bias Education in the Classroom Chapter 7: Culturally Relevant Anti-​bias Education 159 Chapter 8: A Culturally Relevant Anti-​bias Classroom 181 Chapter 9: Culturally Relevant Anti-​bias Activities 223 References   319 Index   329 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Acknowledgments Many thanks to all the people who have supported me and contributed to Roots and Wings, especially the following: All the people who responded to the first and second editions of Roots and Wings. Your comments, questions, and disagreements affirmed and challenged me. The Culturally Relevant Anti-​Bias Education Leadership Project: Louise Derman-​Sparks, Sharon Cronin, Sharon Henry, Cirecie West-​Olatunji, and all the Minneapolis participants. The project was a wonderful experience resulting in great personal and professional growth. Working with all of you was a privilege. Folks I’ve had the pleasure of training with: Julie Bisson, Claire Chang, Linda Coleman, Becky Goze, Linda Jimenez, Mary Loven, Nedra Robinson, Meg Thomas, Kathy Watanabe, Katie Williams, and Marcia Ziemes. I learned so much from you. My students at Minneapolis Community and Technical College, who created the most incredibly diverse and accepting learning community. My students at Rochester Community and Technical College, who open them- selves to our diverse community and take their first steps on this journey. It is such an honor to be in your presence and watch you grow into skillful teachers. Beth Wallace, who edited the first edition and who knows early childhood folks and understands culturally relevant anti-​bias issues. Thanks for bringing greater clarity to my work while respecting my voice. My family, who hate it when I’m always working on “books”—​but eagerly and lovingly embrace our cultures and human diversity. ix COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Introduction Welcome! This is a book about implementing culturally relevant anti-bias edu- cation with young children. It provides a practical introduction to working with diverse children and families in early childhood settings. But first, let’s clarify the basics: What does “culturally relevant” mean? What does “anti-bias” mean? The phrase culturally relevant means the caregiving routines, teaching strat- egies, curriculum, and parent engagement match the child’s home culture. Providing culturally relevant care and education is the foundation of high-quality child care and early education. The term anti-bias refers to teaching children to respect, appreciate, and interact positively with people who are different from them. This also includes teaching children to avoid teasing and name-calling, and to stand up for them- selves and others who are experiencing bias. Children learn to reject bias through our modeling, classroom materials, and classroom activities. The best way to think about culturally relevant anti-bias teaching is to understand the topics presented in this book: culture, prejudice, racism, culturally responsive care, English-language learners, and anti-bias education. Whole books have been written about each of these complex topics. Roots and Wings attempts to present the prevailing theories and best practices in a clear and simple manner, without losing the true meaning. We all need a place to enter the dialogue and rethink our understanding of diversity and early childhood education. Before we begin, let’s explore common misconceptions, my working assumptions, and the benefits of affirming culture in early childhood programs. MISCONCEPTIONS Many misconceptions exist about culturally relevant anti-bias education. You may find yourself doubting the importance of multicultural education for young children. Perhaps you aren’t sure if exploring such issues with your children is developmentally appropriate. Maybe you are afraid that you’ll make matters worse. Here are some of the most common misconceptions teachers have about culturally relevant anti-bias education: Misconception: Children are too young to notice differences among people. Fact: Children notice differences and form attitudes about human diversity in the early years. 1 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 2  •   ROOTS AND WINGS Misconception: Pointing out or talking about human differences with children will only make cross-cultural relations worse. Fact: Including human diversity in the curriculum and giving children simple, accurate information helps them see differences as normal. It prevents them from developing negative or fearful attitudes toward diversity. Misconception: Multicultural education is necessary only if there are different cultures in the school. Fact: Culturally relevant anti-bias education is relevant for all children in all grades. Children in all-white (racially segregated) classrooms are at risk for growing up without the social skills and knowledge base needed to live in a diverse country and work in a global marketplace. Misconception: Multicultural education will create separatism and weaken national unity. Fact: Culturally relevant anti-bias curriculum reinforces patriotism, democracy skills, and citizenship skills—all of which promote a sense of national unity. Misconception: Multicultural education is an attack on white people. Fact: Culturally relevant anti-bias education seeks to recognize and honor the ethnic identities and cultural traditions of all people. It does challenge the exclusive European American orientation of child development theories, caregiving and teaching practices, and curriculum, but it doesn’t attack anyone. GOALS This book was written for early childhood teachers, program directors, teacher trainers, and parents. In this book, the word parents means any adults who share their lives with children. The goals of this book are the following: 1. To introduce culturally relevant anti-bias curriculum in a simple and orga- nized way 2. To challenge prevailing misconceptions, stereotypes, and “isms” that affect child care and early childhood curriculum 3. To invite you to reflect on and clarify your own cultural identity and atti- tudes toward other races, cultures, and language groups COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET INTRODUCTION  4. To empower you to develop cross-cultural competence, culturally respon- sive caregiving and teaching, and anti-bias curriculum 5. To present many practical ideas for making culturally relevant anti-bias education a natural part of your day. ASSUMPTIONS This book does not include everything there is to know about culturally relevant anti-bias education for young children. The information and topics covered in Roots and Wings reflect child development theory, established early childhood education practices, and current accreditation standards. The decision to empha- size some information about culturally relevant anti-bias education and to leave out other information is a product of my values and thinking, and of the limita- tions of space and time. This book deals with such controversial issues as racism, prejudice, and oppression. The content is emotionally charged, and it is likely that you will have moments of discomfort as you read through this book. There is mass confusion when it comes to multicultural education. Be prepared to rethink your own beliefs and assumptions. Culturally relevant anti-bias education is an incredibly complex issue. I have attempted to present a clear, simple approach that remains true to the topic’s complexity without getting lost or immobilized by it. Although the following assumptions are not discussed in this book, I want you to know that I believe in them and that they are important to me. These assump- tions greatly influence my perspective on culturally relevant anti-bias education. 1. In its fullest expression, culturally relevant anti-bias education includes addressing the issues of discrimination against individuals in all areas, including religion, gender, economic class, age, ability, and sexual orien- tation. I have chosen to focus on culture and race because so few early childhood programs deal with this issue successfully. I believe that if a pro- gram can incorporate multicultural values successfully, it can incorporate the other equally important components of diversity and equity. 2. Life in the United States is not fair for everyone. All kinds of discrimina- tion keep individuals from having equal access to society’s services and opportunities. Education is not neutral. Schools and child care centers are institutions, and as such, they are part of the social structure that discrim- inates against individuals. As part of the social structure, early childhood programs inadvertently portray white people as being the only or most COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL • 3   DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 4  •   ROOTS AND WINGS important Americans and perpetuate European American, middle-class values. In the classroom, teachers pass on their values to children through their choice of bulletin board displays, toys, activities, celebrations, and unit themes or projects and through their interactions with the children and with other adults. 3. Everyone needs training in this area, and onetime workshops are not enough. We are all on a lifetime journey of learning about ourselves and others. There are no simple solutions or easy answers to these difficult issues. No quick fixes or “recipe book” solutions exist for designing and incorporating culturally relevant anti-bias education. Everyone means well. But many people are uninformed or misinformed. Don’t get stuck in self-judgment. Let go of mistakes you might have made in the past and embrace the present and the future. 4. The process is the product. If you come to this book focused solely on the outcome of having a culturally relevant anti-bias curriculum, you won’t be open to the possibility of discovery and personal growth. Put aside your preconceived notions of what culturally relevant anti-bias education should be. Let go of your worries about adding it to your program. As you read this book, focus on the here and now. Open yourself up to your feelings. Take in the information bit by bit. Ask questions, stop for reflection, watch others around you, gather some materials and create some activities, and talk with children and parents. As you do these things, you will create a greater understanding of yourself, your culture, prejudice, and racism. And you will have begun the steps of implementing culturally relevant anti-bias educa- tion in your classroom. HOW THIS BOOK IS ORGANIZED This book is divided into two main parts, one aimed at helping you understand the issues, and the other designed to help you address these concepts in your classroom or child care setting. Part 1, “Understanding Multicultural and Anti- bias Issues in the Classroom,” will give you information and insight that will help you understand the foundational issues on which a culturally relevant anti-bias approach is based. You will recognize the complexity of human diversity, identify how multicultural and anti-bias issues affect today’s classrooms, discover what multicultural education is, and see what culturally responsive care and education look like in the classroom. You will also have a chance to think through the ways COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET INTRODUCTION  that prejudice, racism, and dual-language learning affect children. And finally, you will learn more about the interactions of community, culture, and family in relation to multicultural and anti-bias issues that affect the children you deal with every day. Part 2, “Implementing Culturally Relevant Anti-bias Education in the Class- room,” provides concrete ideas and activities you can use to start practicing culturally relevant anti-bias education in your classroom. These activities will be of value for teachers who are relatively new to these ideas as well as for those of you who have already addressed them but need new and fresh ways to provide culturally relevant anti-bias care and education. Each chapter is a building block that creates a solid foundation of under- standing. Chapter 1, “Teaching in a Diverse Society,” provides an overview of how diversity impacts classrooms right now. What has changed in early childhood education that warrants a good, hard look at multicultural and anti-bias issues? Immigration, integration, and the achievement gap are just a few of the topics that contribute to new challenges and opportunities in today’s classrooms. Chapter 2, “Children and Prejudice,” challenges the widely held belief that children are too young to understand bias. It is easier to believe they don’t notice differences than to consider that young children are aware of differences and form strong attitudes toward themselves and others. This chapter challenges you to look at your assumptions about children’s awareness of and attitudes toward human differences, and to think about prejudice in new ways. Chapter 3, “Racism,” poses some key questions about racism: Are we as early childhood professionals able to recognize and understand how the environment shapes children’s development? How do external environmental factors such as racism affect children’s development? The fields of early education and child development have long ignored the issues of race in the development of children. There are few resources to help teachers minimize the impact systemic racism has on their classrooms. This chapter examines race, racism, children’s racial identity development, and how to create a nonracist classroom. Differences between children and teachers or parents and teachers often cause problems. Chapter 4, “Culturally Responsive Care and Education,” helps teachers realize that differences may be a result of culture. Culture influences how families raise children and how a child behaves, communicates, and learns. These behav- ior patterns and child-rearing practices reflect a specific culture’s history, values, beliefs, and current situation. This chapter will help you work successfully with children from diverse cultures by identifying ways in which culture and family patterns mold the children you serve. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL • 5   DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 6  •   ROOTS AND WINGS Chapter 5, “Young Dual-Language Learners,” explores how children acquire a second language and provides classroom strategies you can use to support dual-language learners. Dual-language learners are one of the fastest-growing populations in early childhood classrooms. Today a classroom will likely have at least two children who do not speak English and a few children whose parents speak more than one language. Often, second-language learners may attend early childhood programs in which no adults speak their home language. Moreover, the staff have little knowledge of how children learn a second language and no idea how to foster the development of a second language. This chapter provides you with the background information and practical tools you should have to begin meeting the educational needs of dual-language learners. Chapter 6, “Family, Culture, and Community,” explores the idea that culturally relevant anti-bias education requires us to understand the families with whom we work and the neighborhoods and communities in which we work. This chapter provides an understanding of how the social, political, and historical environment impact children’s development. The community context is viewed in terms of geographic region, type of community, and the community’s economy, diversity, history, events, and issues. The family context includes a look at the cultural diver- sity of the families served. This chapter helps you implement a family engagement model to establish and maintain strong, positive, and empowering relationships with families. The remaining three chapters of the book carefully guide you through the process of putting culturally relevant care and anti-bias education into practice. Chapter 7, “Culturally Relevant Anti-bias Education,” defines such important words as “multicultural” and “anti-bias.” These words mean many different things to people, including varying approaches and descriptive terms. This chapter sorts things out by examining the nature of multicultural education, listing its goals, and explaining the basic approaches. Chapter 8, “A Culturally Relevant Anti-bias Classroom,” explains that the quickest and easiest way to add or improve cul- turally relevant anti-bias education is to improve the classroom by changing its environment as well as the people who teach in it. Chapter 9, “Culturally Rele- vant Anti-bias Activities,” provides more than one hundred culturally relevant anti-bias activities for use in your classroom. These are exciting times, full of new challenges and opportunities. Cultur- ally relevant anti-bias education can renew and rejuvenate your teaching and care­giving. I hope Roots and Wings introduces you to new ideas, and I hope it challenges and empowers you to put this new knowledge to work today in your classroom or in your work with children. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET PART I Understanding Multicultural and Anti-​bias Issues in the Classroom COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET CH APTER 1 Teaching in a Diverse Society We become not a melting pot but a beautiful mosaic. Different people, different beliefs, different yearnings, different hopes, different dreams. —​Jimmy Carter, 1976 Today teaching is more complex and more challenging than it was a few decades ago. When I reflect back on the classrooms of children I taught more than thirty-​ five years ago, I smile as I think about the things that seemed so difficult. A child going through a divorce, a child with attention-​deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or a child whose family had just arrived from Iran seemed like major disruptions in my quiet, settled classroom. Today we expect to witness firsthand how adverse childhood experiences affect the lives of so many children. We antic- ipate embracing and teaching children with special needs, children who speak other languages, and children from many different cultures with life experiences very different from our own. As I grow older, it seems I can always count on two things in life: change and diversity. Change and diversity are the essence of life—​be it plant life, animal life, or human life. Living in the upper Midwest, I am so aware of changing seasons. In my garden and the woods beyond on my hobby farm, there is a rich diversity of plant and animal life. I have been teaching at the same school for eight years 9 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 10  •   ROOTS AND WINGS now, and I am truly amazed at how our student population has changed during that time. Now there is a much wider range of racial and cultural diversity among our students. Every school year brings students from new countries and new lan- guage groups. Just as I would miss the changing seasons or diversity of plants in my garden, I can’t imagine teaching in a setting where everything stays the same or is expected to stay the same. To deny change or to reject diversity is to deny life. We need classrooms, schools, and child care centers that are full of life. Four points are critical to understanding the impact of diversity on early child- hood classrooms: 1. The United States is a racially, ethnically, and linguistically diverse country, and that diversity is increasing, not diminishing. 2. Most education in the United States does not take this diversity into account, and as a result, it is ineffective for students of color. 3. US standards in early childhood education ignore or inadequately address diversity and equity in early childhood education. 4. Teachers and administrators are not taught or mentored on how to carry out culturally relevant anti-​bias education. RACIAL DIVERSITY IN THE UNITED STATES Census 2010 data confirmed what demographers have been telling us: the United States is racially diverse. In fact, the US Census Bureau predicts that in 2020, more than half of US children will be children of color. The 2010 census allowed partic- ipants to identify themselves both by race and ethnicity alone or in combination. As a result, racial and ethnic percentages don’t always add up to 100 percent. European Americans European Americans make up 75 percent of the total population. The South and Midwest have the highest populations of white people. The Midwest also has the highest proportion of white people to other racial groups. African Americans African Americans number 38.9 million people in this country and make up 13 percent of the total population. Almost 55 percent of all African Americans live COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET TEACHING IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY  • 11   in the South. States with the largest African American populations include New York, California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, North Carolina, Maryland, Michigan, and Louisiana. Latinos Latinos make up 17 percent of the total US population, numbering 53 million. The largest population of Latinos in the United States is Mexican, followed by Puerto Rican, Salvadoran, Cuban, Dominican, and Guatemalan. Three-​fourths of Latino people in the United States live in the western or southern regions of the United States, and one-​half live in California, Texas, or Florida. Arizona, Califor- nia, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, and Texas have the largest Latino populations. The Latino population doubled in Alabama, Arkansas, Ken- tucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and South Dakota over the past decade. The fastest growth rate occurred in South Carolina, while California continues to have the largest Latino population of any state. Contrary to popular belief, immigration from Mexico and Latin America has slowed in recent years, which means that the Latino population is more settled. English proficiency continues to increase. According to the Pew Research Center, 68 percent of Latinos five years and older spoke proficient English in 2013. The percentage of Latinos who spoke Spanish at home dropped from 78 percent to 73 percent from 2000 to 2013, because the greatest population growth within the Latino community was among US-​born Latinos. Asian and Pacific Islander Americans Asian and Pacific Islander Americans number more than 18 million, representing nearly 6 percent of the total population. Asian and Pacific Islander Americans will make up nearly 10 percent of the US population by 2050. Chinese is the largest ethnic group, followed by people from the Philippines, India, Vietnam, Korea, and Japan. Cities with the largest Asian American populations include Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, San Jose (California), and Honolulu. The Asian and Pacific Islander American population tends to be concentrated in large metropolitan areas. Recent immigrants are often affluent professionals, with more than 60 percent of recent immigrants having a bachelor’s degree. As a result, we might not realize that the poverty rate of US-​born Asian and Pacific Islander Americans increased 46 percent between 2002 and 2012. Poor Asian and COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 12  •   ROOTS AND WINGS Pacific Islander Americans live in urban communities of color alongside lower-​ income African Americans and Latinos. Language is also an issue for many Asian and Pacific Islander immigrants in the United States. While 95 percent of US-​born Asian and Pacific Islander Amer- icans rate themselves as speaking English well, only half of foreign-​born Asian and Pacific Islander Americans rate themselves as speaking English well. Over 2 million children under five years old in the United States speak Chinese at home. After Spanish, Chinese is the third most widely spoken language in the United States. American Indians and Alaska Natives The population of American Indians and Alaska Natives increased 39 percent from 2000 to 2010. American Indians and Alaska Natives make up 2 percent of the total population. In the 2010 census, 5.2 million people identified themselves as American Indian, or Alaska Native or American Indian in combination with another race, while 2.9 million identified themselves as American Indian or Alaska Native alone. Census 2000 offered the first chance for people to report biracial identity. The 2010 census confirmed that many American Indians identify themselves as com- ing from two or three racial or ethnic groups. The most common combinations were American Indian and white, American Indian and African American, or American Indian, white, and African American. There are 566 federally recognized American Indian tribes in the United States. The largest tribes, all with more than one hundred thousand responses in the 2010 census, are Cherokee, Navajo, Choctaw, Mexican American Indian, Chippewa, Sioux, Apache, and Blackfeet. The states with the highest American Indian and Alaska Native populations are California, Oklahoma, Arizona, Texas, New York, New Mexico, Washington, North Carolina, Florida, and Michigan. Interestingly, 78 percent of American Indians and Alaska Natives live outside tribal reservation lands. But the largest concentrations of American Indians and Alaska Natives tend to be near these areas. Poverty is a major issue for American Indians and Alaska Natives, with 26 percent of these families living in poverty. South Dakota has the highest poverty rate, with 43 to 47 percent of American Indian families earning incomes below the poverty line. In Arizona, Minnesota, Montana, and Nebraska, more than 30 percent of American Indians earn incomes below the poverty line. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET TEACHING IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY  • 13   Multiracial Children A discussion of the demographic changes in the United States wouldn’t be com- plete without highlighting the increase of multiracial children in our country. According to the US Census Bureau and the Pew Charitable Trust, multiracial babies made up 10 percent of the total number of births in 2013. Of the 9 million multiracial individuals living in the United States today, more than 46 percent are younger than eighteen years. The US Supreme Court struck down laws prohibit- ing interracial marriage in 1967. At that time, sixteen states still had laws making interracial sex and marriage a criminal activity. Alabama was the last state to repeal its ban on interracial marriages with a constitutional amendment, which was included on the statewide ballot and passed with 59 percent of the vote in 2000. The social taboos against interracial marriage have weakened significantly since then. Interracial marriages increased 24 percent between 2000 and 2014. Immigrants Immigration has always been a major force shaping US history, economy, and social life. The United States is a country of immigrants. In 2013, 20 percent of the world’s migrants came to the United States. Currently, foreign-​born individuals make up about 13 percent of the US population, and first-​or second-​generation immigrants make up 25 percent of the US population. About 1 million people legally immigrate to the United States each year. In the 1960s, most immigrants came from Europe. Today they come mostly from Mexico, India, China, Philippines, Vietnam, El Salvador, Cuba, Korea, the Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The states of California, New York, Texas, Florida, and New Jersey have the highest immigrant populations. There are 28.4 million people living in the United States who were born in foreign countries. One-​fourth of the total US population lives with a parent who was foreign-​born. Children under the age of eighteen who live in a household with a foreign-​born parent number 72.1 million. Of that 72.1 million, 35 percent are under the age of six. The United States is experiencing significant growth in the population of second-​generation immigrant children, which grew by 47 percent from 10.4 million to 15.3 million from 2000 to 2012. This population is growing especially fast in Nevada, North Carolina, Georgia, Nebraska, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, Kentucky, and South Carolina. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 14  •   ROOTS AND WINGS Undocumented Immigrants Approximately 11.4 million unauthorized or undocumented immigrants entered the United States in 2013. California, Texas, New York, and Florida have the larg- est undocumented immigrant populations. From 2008 to 2012, about 71 percent of undocumented immigrants came from Mexico and Central America. Almost 617,000 undocumented immigrants were removed by the US government or returned to their homelands in 2013. Refugees and Asylum Seekers Refugees are individuals who have fled armed conflict or persecution and need protection because it is too dangerous for them to return home. In 2013, seventy thousand refugees were admitted into the United States. They came primarily from Iraq, Burma, Bhutan, Somalia, Cuba, Iran, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Eritrea, and Ethiopia. The US Congress set the limit on refugees to seventy thousand for 2015, and the majority of refugees in 2015 came from Iraq and Burma. Some individuals, called asylum seekers, seek admission to or permanent residence in the United States. These individuals can come from any country. They must meet the definition of a refugee and prove they will suffer religious, political, or racial persecution if returned to their home country. Approximately twenty-​five thousand individuals received asylum in 2013. Over half of asylum seekers came from China, Egypt, Ethiopia, Nepal, and Syria. Many immigrants, refugees, and asylum seekers have distinct educational needs. Fewer than one-​third of Mexican undocumented immigrants have a high school diploma. Children of refugee families may have missed out on schooling due to political turmoil and civil war in their home countries. They may come to school without knowing English and without being literate in their home languages. One of the challenges facing teachers today is how to improve the educational outcomes for children of immigrants and refugees. MINORITIES ARE THE MAJORITY The United States is experiencing a significant increase in birthrates within com- munities of color and a sustained decrease in birthrates among whites. On July 1, 2011, the US Census Bureau announced that 50.4 percent of children younger than one year were minorities. In 2015, 49.7 percent of children younger than five years in the United States are children of color. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET TEACHING IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY  • 15   Growth in diversity among young children is widespread. The US Census Bureau predicted in 1990 that by 2018, the majority of children in the United States would be children of color. But demographic change has been occurring at a faster-​than-​predicted rate. It is likely that children of color are already in the majority in US public schools. As of 2015, there are already at least four states and one district where the “minority” population is greater than the “majority” popu- lation: Hawaii, the District of Columbia, California, New Mexico, and Texas. This means that racial and ethnic groups that were once minorities are now majorities or that there is so much racial and ethnic diversity that there is no racial major- ity. William H. Frey, a senior analyst at the Brookings Institute, predicts that by 2044 there will be no racial majority in the United States. Diversity will be the majority. For the current generation of US children and all future generations, growing up in the United States will be a multicultural experience. Diversity Is Spreading beyond the Inner City While much of US diversity is concentrated in a few states, the search for jobs and better quality of life results in greater racial and cultural diversity throughout our country. The largest gains in diversity are occurring in communities outside large metropolitan areas. Historically, inner-​city neighborhoods were often home to immigrant communities. Today’s immigrants are settling in suburban and rural areas. Food processing plants and manufacturing plants located in small towns and rural areas provide a source of employment to recent immigrants. As a result, rural school districts in Alabama, Kansas, Nebraska, North Carolina, and Minnesota reported a 400 percent or greater increase in the number of English as a second language (ESL) students. In many cases, change in the ethnic makeup of these communities has occurred rapidly and unexpectedly. It has caught community leaders, school administrators, and teachers by surprise. They have found them- selves needing to rethink their practices and change the way they provide services. While large areas of the country have been experiencing increased diversity, other regions have remained all white. Northern and Midwestern states such as Utah, Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine have not experienced an increase in racial and ethnic diversity. These all-​white enclaves offer children little opportunity to interact with people from other cul- tures, to build cross-​cultural friendships, and to understand diversity. Children growing up in these homogenous communities tend to adopt and pass on the attitudes, fears, and prejudices of their ancestors. They are ill prepared to live and work in a multicultural environment. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 16  •   ROOTS AND WINGS Teacher-​Student Mismatch While researchers foresee a slight demand for elementary school teachers in the next ten years, demand is great for bilingual teachers and teachers of color. The National Center for Education Statistics reported that in US public schools in 2013, 82 percent of teachers were European American, 8 percent were Latino, and 7 percent were African American. Meanwhile, 40 percent of schools did not have even one teacher of color. There is a huge diversity gap between teachers and students in the United States. In other words, the teacher population clearly doesn’t reflect the student population. Does this matter? Yes! When we walk into a new setting, we instinctively look around to see if there is anyone familiar, anyone like us. That’s how we can tell that we belong. When children don’t see any teachers or administrators who look like them, how are they supposed to believe that they will succeed in school? Within the walls of the school, it looks like the people who succeed are whites. Unequal Outcomes Life in the United States continues to be sharply divided along racial, cultural, socioeconomic, and gender lines. This is true in education as well. Data continues to show different outcomes for children of color and white children. This differ- ence is known officially as the achievement gap. The Children’s Defense Fund calls it “the cradle-​to-​prison pipeline.” Children of color are more likely to live in poverty and to have less access to high-​quality health care and to early child- hood programs. Children of color score lower on standardized tests and have higher dropout rates. They are more likely than white children to be identified as having special needs, more often placed in noncollege tracks, less likely to be recommended for gifted and talented programs, more likely to receive harsher discipline in school or be suspended from school, and less likely to graduate from high school. These racial and ethnic disparities result in one in three African American males going to prison compared to an incarceration rate of one in seven­teen among white males. If you doubt these statements, do a little research on your own school district or state. Investigate the graduation, dropout, and sus- pension rates of students by race. Find out how those rates have changed in the past ten or twenty years. The information you find may surprise you. Reasons for such unequal treatment and outcomes include the following: You can’t teach someone whose identity you aren’t willing to acknowledge. The classroom, the teaching-​learning process, and the curriculum are Eurocentric: oriented to European American or white students. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET TEACHING IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY  • 17   •• Teachers assume children of color or children who are English-​language learners are inferior, and as a result, teachers set lower expectations for these children. •• Children of color experience a lack of success in the early grades, which discourages them or alienates them from school. REDEFINING GOOD TEACHING The groundbreaking book From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development, published by the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine in 2000, launched a new approach to understanding the importance of early childhood, how the brain develops, and how to promote children’s well-​being. Today’s early childhood teachers study the science of devel- opment and incorporate the brain research from the past fifteen years into their work with young children. Recent brain research gives us key concepts, such as that early experiences affect the architecture of the brain, that the architecture of the brain is the foun- dation for all future learning and behavior, and that toxic stress threatens learning and behavior. Also, we know that learning is relational. In order to learn, children need strong positive relationships in an emotionally safe environment. Positive adult-​child relationships are built through respectful, responsive, and reciprocal interactions. Teachers, therefore, must be able to build and maintain strong, posi- tive, cross-​cultural relationships. They need to know how to relate to children and families even if their life experiences, values, and beliefs are different. They need to be able to individualize the curriculum and differentiate their teaching strate- gies in order to provide meaningful, effective education for all children. We need a definition of good teaching that responds to children’s need for relational learning and to the changing demographics in early childhood class- rooms. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), the largest professional organization for early childhood educators, recognizes the importance of addressing relational learning and cultural diversity in the prepara- tion of teachers, as the following statements demonstrate: Young children and their families reflect a great and rapidly increasing diversity of language and culture. The National Association for the Education of Young Children’s (NAEYC) recommendations emphasize that early childhood programs are responsible for creating a welcoming environment that respects diversity, sup- ports children’s ties to their families and community, and promotes both second COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 18  •   ROOTS AND WINGS language acquisition and preservation of children’s home languages and cultural identities. Linguistic and cultural diversity is an asset, not a deficit, for young chil- dren. (NAEYC 2009b, 1) Candidates possess the knowledge and skills needed to support and engage diverse families through respectful, reciprocal relationships. Candidates understand how to build positive relationships, taking families’ preferences and goals into account and incorporating knowledge of families’ languages and cultures. Candidates demonstrate respect for variations across cultures in family strengths, expecta- tions, values, and childrearing practices. Candidates consider family members to be resources for insight into their children, as well as resources for curriculum and program development. (NAEYC 2009a, 12) Candidates demonstrate the essential dispositions to develop positive, respectful relationships with children whose cultures and languages may differ from their own, as well as with children who may have developmental delays, disabilities, or other learning challenges. In making the transition from family to a group context, very young children need continuity between the practices of family members and those used by professionals in the early childhood setting. Their feelings of safety and confidence depend on that continuity. Candidates know the cultural practices and contexts of the young children they teach, and they adapt practices as they continue to develop cultural competence—​culturally relevant knowledge and skills. (NAEYC 2009a, 15) Head Start, the largest federally funded early childhood program in the United States, has long served racially and culturally diverse populations. Head Start programs revolve around the Head Start Program Performance Standards and the Head Start Early Learning Outcomes Framework. The standards include principles for multicultural programming and addressing diversity in the classroom. These principles describe teacher behaviors, such as demonstrating respect for children’s cultures, offering a classroom environment that naturally reflects the cultures of the children, promoting children’s primary language while helping them acquire English, and avoiding stereotypic materials and activities. The Head Start Early Learning Outcomes Framework describes the skills, behaviors, and knowledge that Head Start programs must foster in all children. Here is one of the guiding principles of the framework: Every child has diverse strengths rooted in their family’s culture, background, language, and beliefs. Responsive and respectful learning environments welcome COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET TEACHING IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY  • 19   children from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Effective teaching practices and learning experiences build on the unique backgrounds and prior experiences of each child. (Office of Head Start 2015, 3) In the past twenty years, many states have sought to increase the quality of child care through establishing standards for professional development. Core knowledge is often the foundation of these new professional development ini- tiatives. Diversity is now an established element of the core knowledge in early childhood care and education. Here are some examples of indicators from the Washington State Core Competencies for Early Care and Educational Professionals (Washington State Department of Early Learning 2009, 8–30): Child Growth and Development •• Respects and accepts cultural differences, including family values and strengths, and the positive effects those differences may have on behavior and development. •• Creates environments and experiences that affirm and respect cultural, linguistic, ethnic, and socio-​economic diversity. •• Demonstrates ability to embrace and integrate cultural, linguistic, ethnic, and socio-​economic diversity into the daily curriculum by partnering with families and caregivers to incorporate and value aspects of language and traditions into the daily routine. Curriculum and Learning Environment •• Uses materials that demonstrate acceptance of all children’s gender, family, race, language, culture, ethnic, socio-​economic, and special needs. •• Builds children’s understanding of their own and other cultures by providing cultural experiences using songs, stories, and language familiar to the child. •• Builds children’s pride in their cultures, families, and communities by cre- ating learning centers that reflect culture and community members of the children (e.g., culturally reflective themes, home language reflected in print, items from home, family photographs included in environment). •• Creates learning environments that allow individuals to retain and appreci- ate their own and each other’s language, ethnicity, and cultural heritage. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 20  •   ROOTS AND WINGS Promoting Physical Development Incorporates components of children’s home and family culture into outdoor play setting. Invites feedback and input from families to ensure that cultural norms and values are respected when designing gross- and fine-motor activities. Promoting Cognitive Development Offers learning opportunities reflecting the cultural, linguistic, ethnic, and socio-​economic diversity of children in the setting. Designs learning opportunities reflective of cultures represented in the community of the program. Recognizes that infants and toddlers have a culturally based approach to learning that is an essential part of caregiving and curriculum development. Promoting Language and Communication Development Shows knowledge of the role of culture in the development of communica- tion skills. Helps children who are learning a second language by providing them with supports (i.e., props, gestures, and home language) so they can fully partici- pate in classroom experiences. Uses ongoing culturally appropriate assessment and evaluation tools to adapt and modify interactions with children to meet the specific language development needs of individual children. Promoting Social/Emotional Development Understands that family and community have different cultural, linguistic, ethnic, and socio-​economic experiences that play a role in how children respond socially to adults and other children. Uses intervention strategies that affirm and respect family, cultural, socio-​ economic, and linguistic diversity. Promotes Creative Expression Accepts cultural differences that may affect children’s ways of expressing themselves creatively. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET TEACHING IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY  • 21   •• Incorporates suggestions from families on activities for self-​expression that reflect family culture. •• Helps children learn about themselves and others by designing and imple- menting meaningful creative experiences to explore similarities and differences in people. Ongoing Measurement of Child Progress •• Plans culturally appropriate assessments. •• Uses and considers assessment and screening information when making curriculum and program decisions for individuals with exceptional learn- ing needs, including those from culturally and/or linguistically diverse backgrounds. Family and Community Partnerships •• Respects and supports cultural differences and diverse family structures. •• Works effectively with families from a variety of cultural, linguistic, ethnic, and socio-​economic backgrounds. •• Understands how cultural perspectives influence the relationship among families, schools, and communities. •• Recognizes that information on cultural and family beliefs about child-​ rearing is learned through active outreach and engagement with parents. •• Strives to ensure that community diversity and cultures are reflected in the setting. •• Explains how families within many cultures are different and have different family structures. •• Demonstrates knowledge of the potential impact of cultural, linguistic, ethnic, and socio-​economic diversity that can exist between the home and setting. Providing Individual Guidance •• Collaborates with families to develop individually appropriate expectations for children’s behavior. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 22  •   ROOTS AND WINGS Program Planning and Development Ensures the program meets diversity needs and reflects inclusion of chil- dren, families, staff, and community partners. Professional Development and Leadership Exhibits familiarity with current trends in early childhood education. Participates in group problem solving of ethical dilemmas. Articulates personal philosophy of early childhood education based on knowledge of child development and best practices. Articulates and uses a professional code of ethics for making professional decisions. Evaluates current trends in early childhood education and revises practice as appropriate. Takes advantage of opportunities to improve competence, both for personal and professional growth, and for the benefit of children and families. Uses professional resources to improve practice. Seeks out professional relationships to enhance professional growth (e.g., securing a mentor). Develops and carries out a personal professional development plan. Integrates knowledge of historical, philosophical, psychological, and social foundations of education into planning and decision making. Advances program practice by working collaboratively with other staff to understand and support the adoption of research and best practices for children, families, and staff. QUESTIONS TO PONDER ›› What are your thoughts about living in a globalized, multicultural society with no racial majority? ›› How can we prepare children to succeed in a globalized, multicultural society with no racial majority? ›› What will happen if we ignore racial and cultural diversity in our classrooms? ›› What will happen if we don’t change the way we recruit and prepare teachers? COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET TEACHING IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY  • 23   TRY THIS TOMORROW ›› Review your state’s core competencies for early childhood care and education professionals. Identify and highlight the competencies related to diversity, race, and culture. Use Washington State’s standards if your state has no stan- dards related to diversity, race, and culture. ›› Write a professional development plan. What competency area will your plan focus on? Which standard(s) would you like to meet? Why do you want to focus on this standard? Who will benefit from your professional development in this area? How will they benefit? ›› Plan your professional development activities. How will you increase your knowledge and skills? What do you need, and who can help you? When will you meet your goal? What will be the evidence that you have met your goal? What will be different as a result? DIG DEEPER ›› Adair, Jennifer Keys. 2015. “The Impact of Discrimination on the Early School- ing Experiences of Children from Immigrant Families.” Migration Policy Institute. www.migrationpolicy.org/research/impact-​discrimination-​early -​schooling-​experiences-​children-​immigrant-​families. ›› Nganga, Lydiah. 2015. “Multicultural Curriculum in Rural Early Childhood Programs.” Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education 9 (1). doi: 10.9741/2161-​ 2978.1073. http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/jpme/vol9/iss1/2. ›› Ponciano, Leslie, and Ani Shabazian. 2012. “Interculturalism: Addressing Diver- sity in Early Childhood.” Dimensions of Early Childhood 40 (1): 23–29. http:// southernearlychildhood.org/upload/pdf/Interculturalism___Addressing _Diversity_in_Early_Childhood___Leslie_Ponciano_and_Ani_Shabazian.pdf. VIDEOS ›› Pew Research Center. 2015. “Multiracial American Voices: Identity.” Pew Research Center. www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2WaNmhvEzo&list=PLZ9z -​Af5ISatqyY72r32OEcidgbSCtP4k. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 24  •   ROOTS AND WINGS ›› Reid, Jeanne L. 2015. “Why Classroom Diversity Matters in Early Education.” Teachers College, Columbia University. www.youtube.com/watch?v =E1QwiWpRJro. ›› Reid, Jeanne L., Sharon Lynn Kagan, Michael Hilton, Halley Potter, and Philip Tegeler. 2015. “A Better Start: Why Classroom Diversity Matters in Early Educa- tion.” Poverty and Race Research Action Council. www.youtube.com/watch ?v=Vr1YFYU8Kn4. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Special Activities Children learn from real experiences, whether from meeting real people or exploring real materials. “Trips give adults an opportunity to see for themselves something they have heard or read about. Trips serve not only that same function for children, but also its opposite. They give children an opportunity to see for themselves something they will learn more about later in pictures or books or through conversation” (Redleaf 1983, 3). Walks and field trips offer children first- hand, real-​life experiences and are a good starting point for learning about people and different ways of living. These experiences are especially appropriate for chil- dren in monocultural programs. 313 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 314  •   ROOTS AND WINGS Walks and Field Trips Here are some ideas for multicultural walks and field trips: neighborhood walk ethnic neighborhoods house walk neighborhood community centers people walk ethnic museums and cultural centers homes of children or staff multicultural celebrations or street fairs ethnic grocery stores plays and puppet shows developing world–fair trade craft stores museum exhibits Adopt a Classroom Establish a “sister” relationship with a childhood education program in a different town or city or another part of your city, a child care center in another part of the state, or a program in another country. Exchange photographs, artwork, and letters. If feasible, get together for picnics or other special events. Invite Visitors Also consider bringing in special visitors from the community. Parents and family members are the first choice, since the children know them on a daily basis. If your program is not multicultural, try contacting the education and outreach volunteer or staff person within local ethnic or cultural associations. Ask visitors to talk about themselves and their family as they live today, rather than speaking on behalf of their people and focusing totally on the past. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET CULTURALLY RELEVANT ANTI-​B IAS ACTIVITIES  •   315   QUESTIONS TO PONDER ›› What activities could you plan to strengthen children’s connection to their family and home culture? ›› What types of activities could you plan that would reflect and teach children about the home cultures of the children in your classroom? ›› What types of activities would help children learn about and foster positive attitudes toward the ways people are alike and different? ›› How would you introduce and explain bias and stereotype to children ages four to eight? ›› What types of learning experiences would offer children a chance to practice standing up for themselves or others in the face of bias? TRY THIS TOMORROW ›› Choose one activity per week. Select one goal 1 activity, and implement it with children this week. Choose a goal 2 activity, and implement it with children next week. Choose a goal 3 activity, and implement it two weeks from now. Choose a goal 4 activity, and implement it three weeks from now. Next, create an implementation plan. Write a letter to yourself describing your vision of culturally relevant anti-​bias education in your classroom and the necessary steps you must take to achieve that vision. Also include how you will do the following: –– increase your understanding of diversity and multicultural issues –– create a culturally relevant environment –– provide culturally relevant learning and teaching strategies –– provide a multicultural education approach that addresses the four goals of anti-​bias education ›› Teaching Tolerance recently launched a new initiative called Perspectives for a Diverse America. This free, web-​based resource provides teachers with addi- tional lesson plans. It is a literacy-​based approach to anti-​bias curriculum that covers kindergarten through grade twelve. It incorporates the work of Louise Derman-​Sparks and complements Roots and Wings. Read “Critical Practices for Anti-​bias Education” at www.tolerance.org/critical-​practices. Examine the COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 316  •   ROOTS AND WINGS Teaching Tolerance Anti-​bias Framework, a road map for anti-​bias education at every grade level, available at www.tolerance.org/anti-​bias-​framework. The site includes four one-​hour professional development modules that teachers can complete: www.tolerance.org/critical-​practices. To create learning plans, you need to create a free user ID and password. Once you are ready, you can select your favorite children’s books from the site’s list. You can create activities based on the text. The site allows you to select objectives and automatically generates a vocabulary list. You can save your learning plans on the site. DIG DEEPER ›› Dubosarsky, Mia, Barbara Murphy, Gillian Roehrig, Linda C. Frost, Jennifer Jones, Stephan P. Carlson, Nette Londo, Carolyn J. B. Melchert, Cheryl Gettel, and Jody Bement. 2011. “Incorporating Cultural Themes to Promote Pre- schoolers’ Critical Thinking in American Indian Head Start Classrooms.” Young Children. http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-​system/cultural-​linguistic /Dual%20Language%20Learners/ecd/culture_and_diversity/Incorportaing -​cultural-​themes.pdf. ›› Lee, Rebekka, Patricia G. Ramsey, and Barbara Sweeney. 2008. “Engaging Young Children in Activities and Conversations about Race and Social Class.” Beyond the Journal: Young Children on the Web. www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/200811 /BTJRaceClassConversations.pdf. ›› Saint Paul Public Schools. 2011. “Culturally Relevant Teaching Practices—​Ideas from the Field.” Saint Paul Public Schools. http://prek.spps.org/culturally _relevant_teaching_practices.html. ›› Simangan, Kathryn Puache. 2012. “The Effect of Implementing Culturally Rel- evant and Anti-​bias Activities with Young Children in a Preschool Classroom.” University of Washington. https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks /bitstream/handle/1773/20827/Simangan_washington_0250O_10528.pdf ?sequence=1. VIDEOS ›› Adams, J. Q. 2013. “Interview with James Banks.” Expanding Cultural Diversity Project. www.youtube.com/watch?v=a37miO02Yv8. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET CULTURALLY RELEVANT ANTI-​B IAS ACTIVITIES  •   317   ›› Derman-​Sparks, Louise, Socorro Swan, Cherisse Sherin, and Bert Atkinson. 1988. “Anti-​Bias Curriculum.” Anti-​Bias Curriculum Task Force. www.youtube .com/watch?v=Tx1HF_rh95c. ›› Holladay, Jen. 2013. “Multiculturalism in the Modern World.” TEDxDenver Teachers. www.youtube.com/watch?v=U5rKgDOs33U&index=7&list=FL8r7q 1f2vcQlh3p8iWD1taw. ›› Hubbard Broadcasting. 1991. “Prejudice: A Big Word for a Little Kid.” www .youtube.com/watch?v=HpjXSESmFdk. ›› McLean Dade, Karen B. 2013. “Sonia Nieto: The Past, Present and Future of Multicultural Education.” www.youtube.com/watch?v=gNxdWZ6mst4. ›› Sleeter, Christine. 2015. “Angela Sandford.” www.youtube.com/watch?v=K6 -​WW_52XLI. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION/CURRICULUM MORE THAN Culturally Relevant Anti-bias Activities 100 In recent years, early childhood classrooms have become increasingly diverse, and how educators work with a multicultural population of children has become even more complicated. Roots and Wings is full of updated activities, examples, and research to increase your understanding of the underlying issues and help improve your anti-bias and multicultural early education programs. This third edition of the best-selling guide includes: • Additional focus on English-language learners • Ideas for encouraging family engagement and community involvement • Staff training recommendations • New research and tips specific to teaching in today’s diverse society Roots and Wings empowers you with the knowledge you need to focus on the opportunities, work through the challenges, and create a culturally relevant anti-bias program. “Stacey York’s Roots and Wings continues to give us an excellent resource for building early childhood care and education programs that promote all children’s development and learning. This information is much needed, as the concept of children’s cultural context and quality early childhood programs remains a topic of confusion to many. If your program does not have a copy of this new edition of Roots and Wings,I suggest getting one!” —Louise Derman-Sparks, co-author, Anti-Bias Education for Young Children and Ourselves Stacey York has worked in child care and early childhood education for more than thirty years. She has worked on the Culturally Relevant Anti- Bias Leadership Project, written for Sesame Workshop, and served as a curriculum consultant for the public television series The Puzzle Place. York is a nationally recognized expert in the areas of early childhood multicultural education, the development of prejudice in children, and the impact of racism on children’s development. ISBN 978-1-60554-455-7 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL $44.95