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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET HOW WHAT WE FEEL CREATES WHAT WE KNOW of relationships for survival begins at birth. Infants are born expecting and needing human interaction. Though we often think of infants as passive and helpless, their behaviors are actually biologically programmed to actively seek out interaction with adults (National Research Council and Institute of Medicine 2000). Throughout the years of growth from infancy into adult- hood, youth rely heavily on the adults surrounding them to provide stability, safety, and guidance. It is during those years of infancy, childhood, and ado- lescence that strong emotional bonds with other humans form, change, and grow. These relationships teach us about our world and what to expect from it. These bonds are essential for successful growth and development into adulthood (National Scientific Council on the Developing Child 2004b). Human babies are not alone in seeking important relationships with oth- ers. Some animal species display similar tendencies. Research with ducks, dogs, goats, and monkeys has demonstrated that early in life many types of animals seek comfort and nurturance from an adult figure (Bowlby 1982). One of the most well-known and striking demonstrations of this involved baby monkeys who were given the option of spending time with a “wire mother,” which only provided food, and a “cloth mother,” which was an object wrapped in cloth meant to simulate a mother monkey. Despite the biological need for food, the baby monkeys spent most of their time seek- ing comfort from the cloth mother rather than obtaining food from the wire mother. Furthermore, when loud noises or frightening objects scared these monkeys, they clung fiercely to the cloth mother to seek comfort. These monkeys viewed the cloth mother as a source of comfort and safety (Bowlby 1982; Harlow 1958). Similarly, human babies are born seeking this kind of connection and comfort from the people around them. When they are upset, being soothed by an adult helps them to become calm. Infants actively seek out responses from adults around them by cooing or squealing. These early relationships have been shown to play an integral part in brain development and have been linked to cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes later in life (National Sci- entific Council on the Developing Child 2004a; Shonkoff and Garner 2012). Researchers, practitioners, and parents have come to call these important relationships between infants and adult caregivers attachment relationships. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL 9