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|  Part 1 | DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET approach are called “works.” Every aspect of the Montessori philosophy is both supported by and demonstrated through the physical environment, encouraging a student’s freedom within limits and focused self-discipline. Similar to the Reggio Emilia and the Waldorf educational approaches, the Montessori classroom clearly and distinctly echoes its philosophical beliefs—the outward manifestation of the pedagogy of space. The Importance of School Environments Because the environment plays such a funda- mental role within the development of a child, it stands to reason that much attention would be devoted to the architectural spaces occupied by children. Although each of the educational approaches mentioned above (constructivist, Reggio Emilia, Waldorf, and Montessori) has a distinct aesthetic resulting from its philosophical beliefs, the majority of schools do not reflect this precedent. In his article titled “Utopian Spaces of ‘Robust Hope’: The Architecture and Nature of Progressive Learning Environments,” author David Halpin (2007, 247) claims that “architec- ture for childhood” has not been as serious a consideration as it warrants. According to Halpin, any attention paid to architecture for children has unfortunately been dominated by adult concerns, including economic and professional | 14 | considerations. While there is no broadly accepted utopian architectural theory dictating the most appropriate educational environments for chil- dren, nearly all educators would agree that the spaces children inhabit are of critical importance. A number of researchers and experts have investigated the impact of school environ- ments on children’s growth and development. Researchers have also addressed the importance of school environments in regard to teach- ers, families, and the community. According to Leanne G. Rivlin and Carol S. Weinstein (1984), schools are places where learning, socialization, and psychological development coincide. Because children spend many of their waking hours there, schools must be recognized as crucial places that maintain a significant and continuing presence in children’s lives. Children certainly do spend a great deal of their time in schools. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, accessed 2014) reported that the average American schoolchild spends approximately 1,300 hours in a school building each year. And a growing number of those schools are aging and/or dilapidated. Currently, the average age of a public school building in the United States is forty-two years, and more than 75 percent of U.S. public schools were built before 1970. According to the most recent comprehensive federal report on the condition of American public schools, at least COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL