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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET can use class projects to integrate mathematical and scientific learning. Examples of a variety of class projects and the related STEM learning are included in chapter 5. Quick STEM Activities Early childhood teachers have many required standards and curricular components to inte- grate into each day’s schedule. Even in preschool and kindergarten, many teachers feel pres- sured to fit so many requirements into the day. However, many opportunities for learning in the STEM disciplines go unaddressed each day. Many of these involve daily activities that are al- ready part of the schedule but can be “tweaked” through a slight change, addition, or focus. These can provide rich experiences in science and mathematics. Chapter 6 investigates numer- ous simple changes to regular classroom activi- ties that create opportunities for learning in the STEM disciplines. STEM Field Trips Field trips provide preschool and kindergarten children with the opportunity to visit settings they may not typically experience, or to more fully explore their own community. Chapter 7 discusses ways to create richer learning opportu- nities on field trips by planning for STEM learn- ing outcomes and documenting the experiences. Some field trips already have a science compo- nent, such as trips to the zoo, a farm, or the park. Still, children’s learning can be enriched by add- ing mathematics, technology, and engineering to the experience. Other field trips, such as a walk around the neighborhood, may not initially ap- pear to be STEM oriented, but with proper plan- ning they can be. Teachers can encourage closer scientific investigation, such as observing and recording the plants and animals that are part of the community. Or children can focus on the de- sign and structure of various buildings, connect- ing children to the science, mathematics, and engineering that are all around them. Summary After a decade of intense focus on literacy devel- opment in early childhood programs, attention is now shifting to the importance of early learning in mathematics and science. STEM education in- tegrates learning in both of these disciplines and includes connections to technology and engi- neering. By focusing on the connections between science and mathematics, teachers can accom- modate curriculum goals and learning standards in both disciplines while helping children under- stand the ways in which mathematics and science are woven into their daily experiences. Learning in each area reinforces the other. A Note about Terminology Glossary terms appear throughout the text in bold and italic type. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL st e m e d u c at i o n 13