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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET HOW WHAT WE FEEL CREATES WHAT WE KNOW with his father, he might have a secure attachment with a preschool teacher. Care providers have a tremendous opportunity to support and promote the development of these important early relationships. What do different types of attachment look like in an early care envi- ronment? Children expressing a secure attachment pattern will tend to seek comfort from a trusted adult when they are upset or hurt. They are more likely to ask for help when they need it, easily follow instructions and direc- tions, transition smoothly between activities throughout the day, and share in activities and exploration with the provider (Howes and Ritchie 2002). The nuances of differences in behavior of the subtypes of insecure attach- ments often require a keen observer. In general, children with an insecure attachment style may be more difficult to work with because of their chal- lenging behaviors. Unfortunately, behavioral problems are often a notice- able consequence of insecure attachments. Children with insecure-avoidant attachment styles tend to turn away and reject comfort from providers and are rated by teachers as more aggressive and likely to withdraw from situations (Howes and Ritchie 2002). Conversely, children who express insecure-­ambivalent/resistant attachment styles tend to be both excessively dependent on the care provider while also being difficult to work with. These children tend to be fearful and upset when the care provider leaves, but are also likely to display demanding and aggressive behaviors with the care pro- vider. Children with insecure-disorganized attachment styles are perhaps the most confusing children to work with, as their behaviors are inconsis- tent and difficult to predict. These children seem to have no clear patterns of interacting with the care provider, and thus it is difficult for providers to develop connections with these children because of the unpredictability of their actions (Howes and Ritchie 2002). When working with children with challenging behaviors in the early care environment, it is not important to know which subtype of insecure attach- ment may be a root cause of the behaviors. However, understanding that the behaviors you see may be a result of some underlying relationship challenges with primary caregivers can be useful in exploring how to most effectively work with young children. Furthermore, exposure to stress and trauma, in addition to affecting children directly, can also disrupt important attachment relationships with caregivers (see chapters 2 and 4). COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL 17