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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 16 CHAPTER 1 from adults (Howes and Ritchie 2002; Main and Solomon 1990). In the context of early care, these children may exhibit many challenging behav- iors. You should certainly be aware of children who appear fearful at a par- ent’s return, as this may indicate a more serious problem. Research in the last ten to fifteen years has begun to examine insecure-disorganized attachment styles more systematically to attempt to articulate these types of behaviors more concretely. It is again worth noting that it is the consistency of these types of reactions that are most important. Children may have days when they are more upset than on others because of things unrelated to the security of their attachment relationships with their parents. However, if a child consistently responds in fear or avoidance of a parent, concern may be warranted. As a care provider, you will see that being aware of the patterns of how young children respond to their parents can be a useful tool in understanding children’s challenging behaviors in the early care environment. Attachment in the Early Care Environment To many early care providers, challenging good-byes and tearful reunions are common scenarios. In fact, the child’s stress at a parent’s departure is a common part of every early care environment. But it is the coping through that stressful experience that is a marker for the child’s attachment security. The ways that a child copes with these challenges also shift over time, making it a dynamic, ever-changing process. Attachment is not a static construct. It changes and grows with the child and caregiver; always effected by the surrounding environment (National Scientific Council on the Developing Child 2004b). Furthermore, parents or guardians do not provide the only important relationship in a young child’s life. Indeed, early care providers often develop strong attachment relationships with children in their care (Howes and Ritchie 2002). Interestingly, the type of attachment relationship children have with their primary caregivers does not necessarily determine the type of attachment relationship they will have with care providers or any other adults. Children often develop different types of attachment relationships with different adults in their lives. That is, if a child has an insecure attachment COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL