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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET HOW WHAT WE FEEL CREATES WHAT WE KNOW et al. [1978] 2014). It is important to remember that these behaviors are observed primarily in very young children (one to two years of age), and these attachment patterns will look different in older children. Children with insecure-avoidant attachment styles tend to explore a new environment considerably less than their peers, even in the presence of the parent. One of the hallmark behaviors of insecure-avoidant attachment is the child’s apparent ambivalence about the parent’s presence or absence. That is, they do not seem to care if their parent is with them or not. They express little distress at the parent’s departure and little comfort or relief at the par- ent’s return (Ainsworth et al. [1978] 2014). Within the context of the early care environment, this may be most noticed at the end of the day when par- ents come to pick up their children. Typically, children become excited to see their parents and will eagerly engage with them. However, children with more insecure-avoidant patterns of attachment may not seem to care or be excited to see their parents. Children with insecure-ambivalent/resistant patterns of attachment will also tend to explore very little, even in the presence of their parent. They also express some distress or wariness at the presence of the other adult. Interest- ingly, these children tend to notice their parent’s return (unlike children with the insecure-avoidant pattern), but they may express noticeably angry behav- iors toward the adult. Conversely, they may seek out comfort from their par- ent through more passive means (crying on the floor) rather than actively approaching them upon their return (running to parent, demanding to be picked up). In the early care context, these children may be visibly upset or angry at their parent’s return instead of having a joyful reunion (Ainsworth et al. [1978] 2014). Years after Mary Ainsworth developed the Strange Situation experiment, researcher Mary Main suggested that a fourth subtype of attachment exists: insecure-disorganized attachment. This attachment style is the least defined and most ambiguous. Yet Mary Main argued that insecure-disorganized attach- ment exists when children do not seem to have a pattern of behavior consis- tent with expressing discomfort at a parent’s departure or seeking comfort from the parent’s return. Instead, children with insecure-­disorganized attach- ments may seem to express fear in the presence of the caregiver or engage in odd behaviors that do not indicate any strategies for how to seek comfort COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL 15