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|  Part 1 | DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET the room, students react accordingly. Therefore, one can conclude that students are guided toward learning expectations based on the space, since the room arrangement signals the activi- ties expected. The form and nature of the setting impact students’ anticipated experiences, just as they subtly lead the instructor toward pre- conceived notions of the types of learning that should occur, as well as his or her role as pur- veyor of knowledge. Similarly, David R. McNamara and David G. Waugh (1993) deduced that teachers appeared to group children for collaborative work as dictated by the available furniture already in the room. Placing students in working groups of four to six students was typical. McNamara and Waugh concluded this was not a pedagogical decision, aimed at improving group cohesion, but rather a practical one, prescribed by table size and configuration. It often appears that the existing physical arrangement lends itself to maintaining the current state of affairs rather than seeking out substantive changes. A barrier to change could also result from a lack of environmental or design training within teacher preparation programs. Jeffrey A. Lackney and Paul J. Jacobs (2002) discovered that, among the twelve national board certi- fied teachers they interviewed and observed, none reported having any preservice training on design principles. Likewise, none of the | 18 | educators reported receiving any instruction on adapting their physical classroom setting to be more complementary to the curriculum. Lackney and Jacobs discovered that this lack of envi- ronmental knowledge led to the teachers rely- ing solely on trial and error rather than sound research-based design principles. Teacher preparation programs that ignore topics related to the classroom physical environ- ment send an unfortunate message that such matters are trivial and unimportant. By offering such insights, a teacher education program could be deepened and strengthened. Lackney and Jacobs also recommend that teacher prepara- tion programs offer hands-on experience with classroom physical environments. Preservice educators should be allowed to manipulate the physical environments of classrooms within a variety of age levels, testing their design ideas and adapting classroom space to better accom- modate curricular decisions. Considerations for Change Education in the twenty-first century must change in order to adapt to an increasingly global view of the world, aided by a tidal wave of new technologies. Technology is “wiring” children’s brains differently than previous generations, leading to differing educational abilities and COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL