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| Part 1 | DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET (important, liked, and valued) places in their daily surroundings, both children and adoles- cents chose places that were relaxed, calm, and comfortable (Korpela 2002). This finding indi- cates that favorite places are essential for provid- ing an emotional release and imparting a restor- ative experience—desired emotional responses that help to promote learning. The Classroom Environment and Achievement A school building that provides a high-quality learning environment is essential for student success. Research has linked student achieve- ment with optimal physical environmental characteristics. Several studies have shown, on average, a five- to seventeen-point increase on achievement tests for students who attended a more modern, above-standard school building rather than an antiquated, more substandard building, regardless of the socioeconomic status of the school district (Berner 1993, Cash 1993, and Hines 1996). It is also important to note that, as a group, these studies reflected a variety of student populations—Washington, DC, rural and urban Virginia, and North Dakota. Together they present a unified rationale for the impact of a school’s physical environment on student achievement. Building age has also been correlated with student achievement. The age of a building is not | 16 | important per se, but most newer buildings tend to have better heating, air-conditioning, and ventilation, as well as improved acoustics—all of which lead to classroom environments that are more conducive to learning (Earthman and Lemasters 1996). Many older buildings may not have sufficient or appropriate lighting. Because of the advances in building materials that sup- port a more positive learning environment, students in more modern buildings have been shown to outperform students in older buildings on achievement tests (Earthman 2002). The school’s physical environment has also been shown to influence student attendance and dropout rates. In a 2004 study, using data from 226 Houston Independent School District schools, David Branham (2004) discovered that schools that were in poor structural shape— those using temporary rather than permanent structures, and schools without adequate custodial upkeep—were associated with higher dropout and lower attendance rates. Branham concluded that the negative physical environ- ment and lack of attention to school facilities led to performance inadequacies. Color used within the classroom can be indirectly related to student performance as well. Kristi S. Gaines and Zane D. Curry (2011) performed a thorough review of the prevailing research literature, investigating the effects of color on learning and behavior. Their analysis led COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL