on Hi HEALTH DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Health Information for Caregivers and Families CHARLOT TE M. HENDRICKS, PhD Illustrations by Nic Frising COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Other Redleaf Press Books by Charlotte M. Hendricks Growing, Growing Strong: A Whole Health Curriculum for Young Children Series (with Connie Jo Smith and Becky S. Bennett) Body Care Fitness and Nutrition Safety Social and Emotional Well-Being Community and Environment Redleaf Quick Guide to Disaster Planning and Preparedness in Early Childhood and School-Age Care Settings (with Michelle Pettibone) Redleaf Quick Guide to Medical Emergencies in Early Childhood Settings COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Hip on Health Health Information for Caregivers and Families Charlotte M. Hendricks, PhD Illustrations by Nic Frising COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET To Kevin, who started this, and to Nikki. Published by Redleaf Press 10 Yorkton Court St. Paul, MN 55117 www.redleafpress.org © 2015 text by Charlotte M. Hendricks HIP on Health ® is a registered trademark of Charlotte M. Hendricks. www.childhealthonline.org All rights reserved. Photocopies of pages may be distributed for local use provided all copies include the credit line included on the bottom of each page. Any other part of this publication may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages in a critical article or review to be printed in a magazine or newspaper, or electronically transmitted on radio, television, or the Internet. First edition 2015 Cover design by Ryan Scheife, Mayfly Design Cover illustrations by Nic Frising Interior illustrations by Nic Frising Printed in the United States of America 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hendricks, Charlotte Mitchell, 1957- Hip on health : health information for caregivers and families / Charlotte Hendricks ; illustrations by Nic Frising. — First edition. pages cm ISBN 978-1-60554-401-4 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Health--Popular works. 2. Medicine, Preventive. 3. Self-care, Health—Popular works. I. Title. RA776.H516 2015 613—dc23 2014023042 Printed on acid-free paper COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Contents A Letter to Readers ix Diseases Chicken Pox Diphtheria Hepatitis Hib HIV and AIDS Influenza Measles Meningitis Mumps Pertussis Pneumococcal Disease Polio RSV Rubella Tetanus Tuberculosis 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Early Childhood Settings Authorization Buckle Up Exclusion from Child Care Field Trips Selecting Child Care Sharing Information Supplies for Child Care 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 Oral Health Cold Sores Fluoride Preventing Dental Injury Teething Tooth Brushing Tooth Care for Infants Sealants 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Emergencies and First Aid Cuts and Wounds Disaster Preparation Emergency Help First Aid Kit Teach Children Their Names and Addresses 61 63 65 67 69 Growth and Development Bed Wetting Bedtime and Rest Bedtime Routines Dressing for the Weather Ears and Hearing Eyes and Vision Fitness for Children Growth Physical Activity for Infants Toilet Training Weight 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 Illness—Common Conditions Allergies Asthma Colds Coughs Croup Dehydration Dermatitis Diarrhea Ear Infection Fever Food Allergies Head Lice Impetigo Nosebleed Pinkeye Pinworm Rashes Scabies Sore Throat Thrush Tinea Tummy Trouble 93 95 97 99 101 103 105 107 109 111 113 115 117 119 121 123 125 127 129 131 133 135 vi COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Illness Prevention and Treatment Antibiotics Calling the Doctor—Infants Calling the Doctor—Young Children Going to the Hospital Hand Washing Immunizations Know Your Medicine Medical Home Over-the-Counter Medicine Pain and Fever Medicine Stop Germs Throw Away Old Medicine Visiting the Doctor Well-Child Checkups 137 139 141 143 145 147 149 151 153 155 157 159 161 163 Infant Care Back to Sleep Bottle Sanitation Bottle Warming Crib Safety Crying Diaper Rash Lifting Infants Shaken Baby Syndrome Solid Foods 165 167 169 171 173 175 177 179 181 Nutrition and Food Safety Breakfast Calcium Foodborne Illness Healthy Foods Lunchtime Mealtime Picky Eaters Snack Time 183 185 187 189 191 193 195 197 Safety—Indoor Bath Time Safety Burns Choking Fire Safety Gun Safety Indoor Safety 199 201 203 205 207 209 vii COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Lead Poisoning Poisons Suffocation and Strangulation Toy Safety Toy Safety—Infants Toy Safety—Toddlers Toy Safety—Preschoolers Window Safety 211 213 215 217 219 221 223 225 Safety—Outdoor Heat Illness Helmets and Safety Hot Car Insect Bites and Stings Insect Repellent Lawn Mower Safety Pedestrian Safety Pet and Animal Safety Playground Safety Prevent Head Injury Sun Safety—Avoid Hot Surfaces Sun Safety—Cover Up Sun Safety—Infants Sun Safety—Stay in the Shade Sun Safety—Sunburn Sun Safety—Sunglasses Sun Safety—Use Sunscreen Water Safety Weather Safety 227 229 231 233 235 237 239 241 243 245 247 249 251 253 255 257 259 261 263 Social-Emotional Abuse and Neglect 265 ADHD 267 Biting 269 Discipline with Love 271 Effects of Alcohol and Drugs 273 Effects of Caffeine 275 No Smoking! 277 Set Rules for Children 279 Talk with Children 281 Television and Children 283 Temper Tantrums 285 viii COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Dear Reader, Do you have questions about common childhood illnesses? Do you want easy-to-read information on preventing injuries? Are you looking for ways to share important health and safety topics with parents, families, and caregivers? If so, then Hip on Health is for you! This practical resource was developed to help parents, families, teachers, and caregivers learn more about keeping young children healthy and safe. Hip on Health contains information you can easily distribute on 143 different topics related to children’s growth and development, childhood illnesses, health care and illness prevention, infant care, nutrition, indoor and outdoor safety, and social-emotional behavior. Each topic in Hip on Health comes in two reproducible forms: 9 9 An 8.5 x 11-inch miniposter that you can photocopy and display. The miniposters include clear, concise content and appealing graphics to attract attention and increase awareness of important children’s health, safety, and development topics. Display the miniposters at the front desk, in the classroom, on a family-information bulletin board, in the break room, and near the main entrance—wherever they’re likely to catch attention. And with 143 different topics, you can post different miniposters each week. (There’s room saved at the bottom of each miniposter to include your organization’s logo, if you’d like to personalize the information.) 9 9 An 8.5 x 11-inch information sheet that you can photocopy and distribute. The information sheets provide more detail related to the content in the miniposters. Each information sheet includes a fun cartoon strip and three or four facts related to the topic, along with specific recommendations for actions to promote children’s health, safety, and development. You can photocopy these easy-to-read sheets and COPYRIGHTED ix MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET send them home with the children, include them in newsletters, and distribute them at parent and staff meetings to support conversations and training opportunities. Children depend on adults to keep them healthy and safe. Hip on Health provides important and accurate health and safety information—information that has been researched and widely field-tested—in an engaging way that families and caregivers will remember. With thanks for the work you do to promote children’s health, Charlotte M. Hendricks x COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Diseases Chicken Pox Chicken pox can be prevented by immunization. The chicken pox virus is very contagious. A child with chicken pox should stay away from other children until all the spots have crusted over and dried. This takes about one week. Cut the child’s fingernails short to prevent scratching. Baths with oatmeal may reduce the itching. Ask the child’s doctor about medicine to reduce fever and itching. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. COPYRIGHTED 1 MATERIAL Diseases DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Chicken Pox Chicken pox is a rash caused by a virus. The rash forms small bumps that turn into blisters. The sores also can affect internal organs and cause serious complications. Other symptoms of chicken pox include tiredness, fever, and headache. The rash may itch. Cut the child’s fingernails very short to prevent scratching. Scratching the blisters can cause further infection and scarring. Warm baths with oatmeal or baking soda may reduce the itching. Here is how to prepare these treatments: 9 9 Place 1 cup of plain uncooked oatmeal in a stocking or net bag. Swish it through the warm bath water. 9 9 Put ½ cup of baking soda in a tub of warm water. Ask the child’s doctor about medication to reduce fever or itching. 9 9 Do not give aspirin to children! Aspirin has been associated with the development of Reye syndrome, a rare but life-threatening condition. 9 9 Do not use hydrocortisone or antihistamine creams and sprays. Chicken pox spreads easily among children, even before the rash appears. A child with chicken pox should stay away from other children until all the spots have crusted over and dried. This usually takes about one week. Chicken pox can be prevented through immunization. This immunization is usually given when the child is twelve to fifteen months old. This vaccine not only prevents chicken pox; it also helps prevent shingles later in life. Shingles is a skin rash caused by the same virus that causes chicken pox. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. 2 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Diseases Diphtheria Diphtheria causes a sore throat, slight fever, and chills. Sometimes a thick membrane forms across children’s throats, making it hard to swallow or breathe. About 10 percent of people who get diphtheria die from it. Diphtheria is preventable. All children should be immunized against diphtheria. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. COPYRIGHTED 3 MATERIAL Diseases DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Diphtheria Diphtheria is caused by bacteria that live in the mouth, throat, and nose of infected people. It is easily spread through coughing or sneezing. Diphtheria usually causes a sore throat, slight fever, and chills. If the disease is not diagnosed and treated early, it can produce a powerful toxin (poison) that spreads throughout the body. This can cause serious complications such as heart failure, suffocation, paralysis, and death. Sometimes a thick membrane forms across children’s throats, making it hard to swallow or breathe. Approximately 10 percent of people who get diphtheria die from it; the death rate is even higher among young children. Diphtheria is preventable through immunization. Diphtheria once was a major cause of childhood illness and death. Because of immunizations, diphtheria is very rare in the United States. However, the disease still exists in other countries. All children should be immunized! The diphtheria vaccine is part of the DTaP injection. It usually is given to children at two months, four months, and six months of age. A booster is given at fifteen to eighteen months and again at four to six years. Another booster, the Tdap injection, is given at eleven to twelve years of age. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. 4 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Diseases Hepatitis Hepatitis is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver. It can be deadly. Hepatitis A is spread through contaminated food and drink. Hepatitis B can be spread through infected blood and blood products. Children can get hepatitis by touching the blood of someone who is already infected. They can also become infected if they stick or cut themselves with a contaminated object, such as a needle or razor. Teach children to avoid touching blood and objects that may have blood on them. Protect children and yourself by getting immunized against hepatitis A and hepatitis B. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. COPYRIGHTED 5 MATERIAL Diseases DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Hepatitis Hepatitis is a disease that causes inflammation of the liver. This disease can be deadly. There are several types of hepatitis. Each is caused by a different virus and is spread, treated, and prevented differently. Hepatitis A can be spread when someone who is infected does not wash hands properly after using the toilet. It is also found in sewage. You can get hepatitis A by eating raw oysters and shellfish from water contaminated by sewage. Hepatitis B is spread through infected blood and blood products. Children can also be infected if they stick or cut themselves with a contaminated object, such as a needle or razor. Teach children to avoid touching blood and objects that may have blood on them. Hepatitis C is also spread through infected blood. In past years, it was usually spread by blood transfusions, but the blood supply in the United States is now screened and treated to be safe for transfusions. The number of people with hepatitis is increasing. You can help protect children and yourself by getting immunized against hepatitis A and hepatitis B. Doctors often give the first shot to newborn infants before they leave the hospital. Be sure children have all the recommended immunizations. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. 6 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Diseases Hib Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b) is an airborne bacterial disease. It is spread by coughing, sneezing, and talking. Hib can cause serious complications in young children, such as ear infections, meningitis, pneumonia, deafness, seizures, and intellectual disability. Hib is preventable. All children under the age of 5 should be immunized against Hib. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. COPYRIGHTED 7 MATERIAL Diseases DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Hib Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b) is a bacterial disease spread through the air by coughing, sneezing, and talking. Hib bacteria enter children’s noses or throats. If they stay there, the children probably will not become sick. But sometimes the bacteria spread to the lungs or bloodstream, causing serious complications including ear infection, meningitis, and pneumonia. Hib can also cause epiglottitis, an inflammation and swelling in the throat that can make it hard to breathe. Hib also can cause deafness, seizures, and intellectual disability. This disease is most dangerous for children younger than five years, especially infants. Hib is preventable. All children younger than five years should be immunized. They should get the vaccine at two and four months and, depending on the brand of vaccine given, possibly another dose at six months. Children need a booster dose between twelve and fifteen months. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. 8 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Diseases HIV and AIDS The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is spread by blood and body fluids from an infected individual. Teach children about diseases, and specifically these facts about HIV and AIDS: • Blood can contain germs that make you sick. Never touch anyone else’s blood. • You cannot get HIV/AIDS from hugging or touching someone’s hand. • You cannot get HIV/AIDS from playing tag, hide-and- seek, or coloring pictures with someone. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. COPYRIGHTED 9 MATERIAL Diseases DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET HIV and AIDS The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is spread by blood and body fluids from an infected individual. A person who has been infected with the virus is “HIV positive.” They may have no symptoms, but can transmit the virus to others. HIV destroys the body’s immune system so the body cannot fight diseases. There is no vaccine to prevent HIV infection. HIV and AIDS are not common in young children. Most children with HIV infection were infected during or before birth by mothers with HIV infection. Children can get the disease, however, by touching blood or body fluids from an infected person. Here are some concepts you can teach children about infectious diseases, and specifically about HIV and AIDS: 9 9 Blood can contain germs that make you sick. Never touch or taste anyone else’s blood. 9 9 Do not touch objects that may have blood on them, such as needles or weapons. 9 9 You cannot get HIV or AIDS from being in the same room with someone who has it. You cannot get HIV/AIDS from hugging or touching someone’s hand. 9 9 If another child is HIV positive, it is okay for children to play with him or her. Children cannot get HIV/AIDS from playing tag, hide-and-seek, or coloring pictures with a child infected with HIV or a child with AIDS. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. 10 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Diseases Influenza Influenza (the flu) is a viral disease that causes fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, headache, muscle ache, and fatigue. Yearly flu vaccinations are recommended for all children 6 months of age and older and for all adults. Flu vaccine can be given in two ways. The flu shot is given with a needle, usually in the arm. It is recommended for children over 6 months of age. Healthy children over age 2 may be given a nasal-spray flu vaccine instead. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. COPYRIGHTED 11 MATERIAL Diseases DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Influenza Influenza (flu) is a viral infection that causes fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, headache, muscle ache, and fatigue. A child’s doctor may recommend an over-the-counter medication to reduce fever and discomfort. Never give aspirin to children with viral illnesses like the flu! Aspirin has been associated with the development of Reye syndrome, a rare but life-threatening condition. Most people who get the flu recover fully within one to two weeks. However, some people develop serious complications, such as pneumonia. The annual flu season is usually from November through April. During this time, flu viruses circulate widely. An annual flu vaccination is the best way to reduce the chance of getting the flu. Yearly flu vaccinations are recommended for children six months of age and older and for all adults. Flu vaccine can be given in two ways. The flu shot, usually given in the arm, is approved for use among people six months of age or older, including healthy people and those with chronic medical conditions. A different kind of vaccine can be given in a nasal (nose) spray. It is approved for use among healthy people two to forty-nine years of age. The flu virus changes, so the vaccine is different each year. The vaccine protects against the influenza virus strains expected for that year. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. 12 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Diseases Measles Measles is a serious viral disease. Measles is easily spread through the air. Children can get measles from infected people who cough or sneeze around them, talk to them, or are simply in the same room with them. Measles is preventable. All children should be immunized against measles. The vaccine is usually given as part of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunization. The first dose is given at 12 to 15 months. The second dose is usually given at 4 to 6 years. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. COPYRIGHTED 13 MATERIAL Diseases DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Measles Measles is a very contagious viral disease that spreads easily through the air. Children can get measles from infected people who cough or sneeze around them, talk to them, or are in the same room with them. Measles begins with a fever that lasts for a couple of days, followed by a cough, runny nose, and conjunctivitis (pinkeye). A rash starts on the face and upper neck, spreads down the back and trunk, then extends to the arms, hands, legs, and feet. After about five days, the rash fades in the same order it appeared. A child’s doctor may recommend an over- the-counter medication to reduce fever and discomfort. Never give aspirin to children with viral illnesses like measles! Aspirin has been associated with the development of Reye syndrome, a rare but life-threatening condition. Measles can have serious complications, such as diarrhea, ear infection, croup, pneumonia, and encephalitis. Encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain, can cause deafness, intellectual disability, and death. Measles is preventable! All children should be immunized. Measles is not common in the United States because most children are immunized. However, the disease is common in other countries and can easily be brought into the United States. The measles vaccine is usually given as part of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunization. The first dose is given at twelve to fifteen months. The second dose is usually given at four to six years. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. 14 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Diseases Meningitis Meningitis is a rare disease, and it can be very serious. Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes and fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The disease may be mild, causing headache and fever. It can also be severe and even life threatening. Diseases such as chicken pox, mumps, and Hib can lead to meningitis. Make sure children have all recommended immunizations. From Hip on Health: Health Information for Caregivers and Families by Charlotte M. Hendricks. Published by Redleaf Press. www.redleafpress.org. COPYRIGHTED 15 MATERIAL DOUBLE Early Childhood / Health and Wellness TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET More than 140 childhood health and safety topics for families, educators, and caregivers H ealth and safety is of utmost importance and concern when it comes to the care of young children. This field-tested and medically reviewed collection of reproducible miniposters and one-page information sheets covers children’s growth and development, childhood illnesses and diseases, health care and illness prevention, infant care, nutrition, indoor and outdoor safety, and other well-being topics. These tools will enhance communication between families and caregivers and increase everyone’s knowledge. You can use these materials in a variety of ways: Post on bulletin boards or display in common areas Distribute to families as needed Hand out at training events and family meetings “Hip on Health, by Dr. Charlotte Hendricks, is a significant contribution to child health literature. The format allows presentation of material in readable and visual form. A wide range of topics is covered in succinct style, enhanced by lighthearted cartoons. The breadth of subject material is impressive, ranging from common daily concerns to less common but important considerations. This is a good manual for all who deal with children.” —S. D. Palmer, MD, Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, UAB School of Medicine ›› Display in staff lounge as reminders and refreshers ›› Incorporate in discussions about health with children ›› Include as inserts in newsletters “As a widely recognized expert in the field of early childhood health education, Dr. Hendricks combines 143 health and safety topics with Nic Frising’s entertaining illustrations to create this essential health and safety resource. The miniposters and information sheets make this resource a ‘must have’ for everyone involved in the care of children.” —Marilyn Massey-Stokes, EdD, CHES, FASHA, CWHC, Interim Co-Chair, Associate Professor
Department of Health Studies, Texas Woman’s University Charlotte M. Hendricks, PhD, founder and president of www.childhealthonline​.org, has been promoting health education for young children, parents, and teachers for over thirty years. She provides training sessions for Head Start and early childhood programs, presents at state and national conferences, and is editor of a peer-reviewed magazine. Her other Redleaf Press books include the Growing, Growing Strong series and Redleaf Quick Guide to Medical Emergencies in Early Childhood Settings. ISBN 978-1-60554-401-4 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL $21.95