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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET INTRODUCTION Just in the last week, I was asked to evaluate the quality of a restaurant where I had lunch, the quality of services at a medical clinic where I had a physical, and the quality of a professional conference I attended. In each case, I was asked to evaluate the way I was treated, the environment, the content of the services, and the skills of the individuals providing the service. Next week, when I take my car for a tune-​up, I will no doubt be handed an evaluation form. You are probably having similar experiences. In a data-​driven culture like ours, there is a constant striving for measurable improvement. If we can measure it, we can make it better. We can make it better if we measure it. Quality is important. Evaluation has become part of our everyday lives. We encounter star ratings for hotels, movies, and child care centers. We can find (or write) online reviews for almost any product or service available. We know evaluations have a helpful and productive purpose. They help consumers make smart choices. They allow consumers to provide feedback, which helps the organizations and individuals being evaluated know what to improve. Even in education, the evaluation of children’s learning, which helps teachers know what children understand and how they are improving, is now considered essential (Copple and Bredekamp 2009; McAfee, Leong, and Bodrova 2004). Evaluation of teachers, however, is not yet an accepted idea in the field of education, even among its leaders. As an example, some years ago I was involved in the beginnings of the Quality Improvement Process (QIP) in public schools. It was exciting to work with high-​powered administrators and union leaders to apply the research and principles of the quality movement in business to the field of education. It was also frustrating. During a particular meeting about teaching quality, the leaders around the table made a pact not to use the “E” and “A” words, evaluation and accountability, as if quality improvement could happen without any sort of evaluation. This idea was shortsighted. It set back progress. The thinking that evaluation can be avoided in quality-​improvement efforts, 1 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL