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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Erik Erikson: Taking Initiative to Gain Mastery That Supports Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Lev Vygotsky: How Children’s Play Improves Learning . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Abraham Maslow: Art as a Language That Promotes Thinking and Self-Actualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 John Dewey: Democracy in the Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Howard Gardner: Using Multiple Intelligences to Acquire Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Louise Derman-Sparks: Engaging Children in Deeper Thinking . . . . 141 Your Turn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Part 4: Physical Development: Beyond Gross-Motor and Fine-Motor Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Jean Piaget: Bodies as Tools for Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Erik Erikson: Promoting Physical Mastery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Lev Vygotsky: Scaffolding and Learning through Physical Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Abraham Maslow: Physical Strength That Supports Self-Actualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 John Dewey: Collaborative Play That Promotes Physical Skills . . . . . 185 Howard Gardner: Learning with the Body’s Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . 192 Louise Derman-Sparks: Bodies as Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Your Turn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Part 5: Changing the Assumptions of Early Care and Education: How the Theories Give Us a Voice to Initiate Change . . . . . . . 213 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL