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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Contents Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Part 1: The Theories as a Framework to Support Children . . . . . . . . . . 9 Jean Piaget (1896–1980) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Erik Erikson (1902–1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 John Dewey (1859–1952) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Howard Gardner (1943–) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Louise Derman-Sparks (1940–) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Part 2: Social-Emotional Development: Building Relationships to Learn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Jean Piaget: Arguments, Discussions, and Disagreements That Build Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Erik Erikson: Children’s Sense of Identity and Social Integration . . . . 43 Lev Vygotsky: How Children Communicate Their Understanding of the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Abraham Maslow: Promoting Self-Regulation and Emotional Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 John Dewey: Collaboration, Community, and Negotiation . . . . . . . . . 65 Howard Gardner: Multiple Intelligences as a Tool to Develop Self-Esteem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Louise Derman-Sparks: It’s Not Fair! Children as Social Activists . . . . 78 Your Turn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Part 3: Beyond ABCs and 1, 2, 3s: Children as Protagonists of Their Own Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Jean Piaget: Children as Active Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL