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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 20     Part 1 Making Vygotsky’s Theory Visible in Play Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory offers a view into the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they live, using their cultural tools. In this story, the cultural tools of books, pictures, and language are used to support children’s caregiving learning. By selecting specific books about caring for babies (which have the cultural tool of print) and incorpo- rating family photos into the environment, the teachers increase the chil- dren’s curiosity and offer them a way to compare and contrast the families in the program. The children also gain knowledge about caring for babies by talking and listening to others’ ideas (using the cultural tool of language). The teachers offer children opportunities to talk about what their families use to carry infants, and they provide experiences for the children to explore the carriers and incorporate dolls in their play. This also helps to strengthen the children’s relationships with their own baby siblings. Through dramatic play, the children create an imaginary scenario of taking on and acting out the role of caregiver. They follow specific caregiver behavior by feeding their dolls with the baby bottles and then rocking and singing to the dolls in an effort to comfort them. The children follow other rules of caregiver behavior, such as keeping their dolls close to them and transporting them in carriers. These caregiver actions highlight Vygotsky’s concept of play, which includes acting in specific ways that correspond with the role of caregiver the children are playing. Vygotsky’s ZPD is seen as Alina observes and then copies Monéa’s instructions to wrap the doll with a rebozo. In this situation, Alina is learn- ing from Monéa, who is more experienced at wrapping fabric. The children will continue to learn about their world through relevant cultural tools and play, and will gain the ability to accomplish new tasks through the support and guidance of adults and more knowledgeable peers. Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) In Plain View: Maslow’s Theory Defined M aslow was a psychologist whose main contribution to psychol- ogy was his hierarchy of needs. This is a motivational theory that looks at the needs humans have and how individuals behave to satisfy those needs. In other words, it asks: What motivates people or puts them into action toward trying to fulfill their needs? Maslow focused his COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL