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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET The Theories as a Framework to Support Children 15 son hypothesizes that if a crisis is not positively resolved, later problems will result in life. For example, if an infant does not develop a strong sense of trust, he will have problems trusting others as he moves through future stages. The first four stages are especially important as they describe unique social-emotional developmental tasks that occur in the life of the infant and young child. They are: The next four stages cover the span between adolescence and late adult- hood (old age). These stages are: identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus self-absorption, and integrity versus despair. In this book we focus on the first four stages as the significant stages in young children’s development. Identity is another major aspect of Erikson’s theory. Erikson addresses how a child develops a sense of identity, which is the ability to define one- self as a unique person with a sense of self. Erikson defines identity as the primary task of adolescence as an individual attempts to develop a moral, religious, and sexual identity separate from others. However, he discusses the beginnings of identity in childhood. A basic sense of ego (which means “self ”) identity is provided when an infant receives continuity, consis- COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL Erikson Trust versus mistrust (birth to twelve months): During the first year, infants are busy building trusting relationships with the adults that care for them. Infants begin to develop a sense of their iden- tity or who they are as the adult caregivers respond to them. Autonomy versus shame and doubt (one to three years): As toddlers, children become social beings and productive learners, gain a sense of self, and learn to master skills themselves. During this time, a sense of independence is obtained. Children establish their ability to be independent and express their own free will, ideas, desires, and abilities—against or separate from their elders and leaders. Initiative versus guilt (three to six years): During the play years, children take initiative through purposeful self-initiated play and gain a strong sense of accomplishment. Children develop a sense of self that allows them to express their ideas and think- ing. They begin to take ownership of “who they are” and what they choose to do, both individually and as a member of a group. Industry versus inferiority (six to eleven years): During the school- age years, children learn to be capable and productive. Children master new skills that help them gain confidence and compe- tence in their own abilities.