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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 14 Part 1 various treasures found by treasure hunters, and the tools treasure hunt- ers used to accomplish their discoveries. The children build relationships, solve problems, and make sense of the world around them. Piaget recognizes the capacity human beings have to gather informa- tion from external events and make them fit into previously acquired men- tal structures. This is seen in the way children manipulate the real maps to create their own treasure maps. Piaget views this process as a fluid one. In other words, new information is constantly adapted into previous knowl- edge. Knowledge continuously changes based on the information provided by a changing environment. As the teachers respond to children’s ideas by adding new materials to make maps, they support the children’s abilities to accommodate new information into existing knowledge. Piaget connects developmental growth to the important interactions children have with peers and other adults. He argues that children con- struct knowledge as they interact with people, places, and objects in their daily life. The children in the story have a schema about pirates and buried treasure. They accommodate their “pirate schema” to fit the new informa- tion they learn about pirates from the books. The children reach a reso- lution (equilibrium) that treasure is buried to keep it safe from bad guys; however, they experience confusion or disequilibrium about where pirates bury treasure. One thing they discover is that pirates use treasure maps, and there is agreement that a map needs to be used to find the buried trea- sure. As the children pretend to be pirates, they demonstrate how Piaget’s theoretical model maps out their own development—social-emotional, cognitive, and physical. Erik Erikson (1902–1994) In Plain View: Erikson’s Theory Defined E rikson was a pioneering psychoanalyst who introduced psychosocial development theory, which addresses the importance of mastering specific tasks in order to achieve success at later stages of develop- ment. In this theory, eight stages of development unfold as children and adults go through life (Erikson 1963). At each stage, a major conflict exists. For healthy development to occur, an individual is challenged to success- fully negotiate the crisis or achieve a balance between two extremes. Erik- COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL