DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET The Redleaf FAMILY CHILD CARE CURRICULUM Teaching Through Quality Care SECOND EDITION SHARON WOODWARD COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET The Redleaf Family Child Care Curriculum COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Other Redleaf Press Products by Sharon Woodward Family Child Care Curriculum Family Companion Books by Sharon Woodward with Donna C. Hurley Family Child Care Guide to Visits, Inspections, and Interviews The Home Visitor’s Manual: Tools and Strategies for Effective Interactions with Family Child Care Providers COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET The Redleaf FAMILY CHILD CARE CURRICULUM Teaching Through Quality Care SECOND EDITION SHARON WOODWARD COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Published by Redleaf Press 10 Yorkton Court St. Paul, MN 55117 © 2011, 2015 by Sharon Woodward All rights reserved. Unless otherwise noted on a specific page, no portion of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or capturing on any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages in a critical article or review to be printed in a magazine or newspaper, or electronically transmitted on radio, television, or the Internet. First edition 2011. Second edition 2015. Cover design by Elizabeth Berry Cover photograph by Silke Woweries/Corbis Interior design by Mayfly Design Typeset in the Whitman and Meta typefaces Interior illustrations by Todd Balthazor Printed in the United States of America 22  21  20  19  18  17  16  15   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Woodward, Sharon. [Family child care curriculum] The Redleaf family child care curriculum : teaching through quality care / Sharon Woodward. — Second edition. pages cm Earlier edition published as: Family child care curriculum : teaching through quality care. Includes index. Summary: “This book allows providers to closely align the entire family child care curriculum to a broader range of state early learning standards. The complete curriculum is easy to use and provides activities in each domain that are designed for family child care programs with mixed-age children, along with age-appropriate outcomes, daily schedules, and letters to families”— Provided by publisher. ISBN 978-1-60554-414-4 (paperback) 1. Family day care—Activity programs. 2. Early childhood education. 3. Child development. I. Title. HQ778.63.W662 2015 362.71'2—dc23 2014049621 Printed on acid-free paper COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET For Philip, Jamie, Michael, and always, David— my most rewarding learning experience COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Contents Preface  xi Acknowledgments  xiii Introduction: Teaching through Quality Care  1 •• How to Use This Curriculum  2 •• Caring for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschool Children  7 PART 1: UNDERSTANDING THE NEEDS OF CHILDREN Unit 1: Physical and Motor Development  11 •• •• •• •• Infant Physical and Motor Development  12 Toddler Physical and Motor Development  13 Preschool-Age Physical and Motor Development  14 Physical and Motor Indicators  15 Unit 2: Cognitive Development  19 •• •• •• •• Infant Cognitive Development  19 Toddler Cognitive Development  21 Preschool-Age Cognitive Development  22 Cognitive Indicators  22 Unit 3: Communication and Language Development  27 •• •• •• •• Infant Communication and Language Development  27 Toddler Communication and Language Development  29 Preschool-Age Communication and Language Development  30 Communication and Language Indicators  31 vii COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET viii     Unit 4: Social and Emotional Development  35 •• •• •• •• Infant Social and Emotional Development  36 Toddler Social and Emotional Development  38 Preschool-Age Social and Emotional Development  39 Social and Emotional Indicators  40 Unit 5: Development within Approaches to Learning  43 •• •• •• •• Infant Development within Approaches to Learning  45 Toddler Development within Approaches to Learning  46 Preschool-Age Development within Approaches to Learning  46 Approaches to Learning Indicators  47 Unit 6: Quality Care for Children  49 •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• Supporting Children  50 Equipment Safety and Placement  50 Your Role When Caring for Infants  52 Your Role When Caring for Toddlers  57 Your Role When Caring for Preschool Children  60 Your Role in Creating an Inclusive and Adaptive Environment  64 Nurturing Children’s Learning  66 Nurturing Children’s Growth  67 The Importance of a Daily Schedule  68 Partnering with Families  71 Evaluating Your Child Care Program  80 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET     ix PART 2: THE ACTIVITIES •• Choosing Activities  83 Unit 7: Physical and Motor Development Activities  87 •• •• •• •• •• Use Senses  88 Explore Movement  93 Interact with People  97 Interact with Toys and Objects  102 Develop Verbal Skills  106 Unit 8: Cognitive Development Activities  111 •• •• •• •• •• Use Senses  112 Explore Movement  116 Interact with People  122 Interact with Toys and Objects  126 Develop Verbal Skills  133 Unit 9: Communication and Language Development Activities  139 •• •• •• •• •• Use Senses  140 Explore Movement  145 Interact with People  149 Interact with Toys and Objects  152 Develop Verbal Skills  157 Unit 10: Social and Emotional Development Activities  163 •• •• •• •• •• Use Senses  164 Explore Movement  168 Interact with People  173 Interact with Toys and Objects  177 Develop Verbal Skills  181 Unit 11: Approaches to Learning Activities  187 •• •• •• •• •• Use Senses  188 Explore Movement  189 Interact with People  191 Interact with Toys and Objects  191 Develop Verbal Skills  194 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET x     PART 3: YOUR PROGRAM AND PRACTICES •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• Sample Daily Schedules  198 Guiding Children’s Behavior  200 A Note about School Readiness  205 The Importance of Play  206 The Power of Art  207 Reading with Children  208 Introducing Mathematics  210 Outdoor Play with Infants, Toddlers, and Preschool Children  211 Group Games  212 Transporting Children  219 Computers: For You and the Children  220 Custody Issues  222 Pets in Your Home  222 Food Allergies  223 Water Safety  224 Product Safety  224 Environmental Health  226 Emergency Evacuations  228 Additional Resources •• Books  231 •• Websites  232 Index  235 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Preface Since writing the first edition of this curriculum and working with providers who are using it, it has occurred to me that purchasing a curriculum is a great deal like purchasing a pair of shoes. It’s easy to see shoes on a shelf or in a maga- zine and imagine how great it would be to own them. Often the temptation to be styl- ish can be overwhelming. The reality, however, is that if the shoes don’t fit correctly or were never intended to be worn the way you would like to wear them, they will prob- ably end up in the back of your closet. The same holds true for curriculum. Any curriculum you decide to implement needs to “fit.” A curriculum that fits should be easy to implement, just as a good pair of shoes should be easy to walk in. If you choose to implement a curriculum that does not accurately reflect your environment, does not allow you to meet the developmen- tal needs of children in a realistic way, and does not correspond to how you actually feel about child care, it’s simply not a good fit. When the Family Child Care Curriculum was originally published in 2011, I intended to create a resource that family child care providers could easily apply to their programs. This was very important to me. The intention of the original curricu- lum was to provide a realistic framework that would be a good fit for a typical family child care environment. A short time after the publication of the curriculum, Redleaf Press issued a com- panion developmental assessment. The assessment booklet provided a wonderful addition to the curriculum. The information in the assessment, as in the curriculum, is presented in a straightforward and easy-to-use format. We wanted to provide tools that would allow providers to meet expanding expectations while maintaining the character of their family child care programs. xi COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET xii     prefac e Because the field of early child care is constantly changing based on an increased understanding of how children grow and develop, and because programs continu- ally change as providers gain more experience and knowledge, your resources need to change as well. To support these changes, we have added additional and relevant information to both the curriculum and the assessment booklet. You will find a new unit that focuses on approaches to learning along with a new corresponding section in the developmental assessment booklet. We have included additional information for creating an inclusive environment, and we have provided some suggestions on ways in which you can adapt activities to include all the children in your program. You will also find additional activities that focus on science, math, and preliteracy. We have organized this book to allow you to identify specific activities to facilitate the specific developmental outcomes of the children in your care. The new information better aligns with expanded state requirements while main- taining the ease of use and good fit that are so important. Now it’s up to you to use this curriculum to facilitate learning for the children in your care. After all, any curricu- lum is only as good as your ability to implement it. The new activities remain “home friendly” and reflect the reality of working with mixed-age groups. You do amazing work. Family child care providers offer an incredibly valuable service to parents and children. Your curriculum should not only work well in meet- ing the needs of children, but it must meet your needs as well. A curriculum that fits should be flexible enough that you can easily adapt it to your environment and your changing enrollment. I hope you find the new information in this revised edition helpful, and I hope it provides support in your very important work. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Acknowledgments Thank you to Frances and Daniel Brunelle, who always told me I could. Thank you to Donna Hurley for her great support as a friend and business partner. To Paul Hughes, who continues to provide support and critical feedback. To Kyra Ostendorf, who does such amazing work and who was instrumental in this curriculum getting published. To Martin DeJesus, Philip Breen, Jamie Woodward, and Michael Messina, without whom I could not imagine writing anything. To Cathy Hill, who generously shared her knowledge and enthusiasm about chil- dren and the importance of creating environments that are both inclusive and accom- modating. Cathy, you are a truly extraordinary woman who enriches the lives of all the children who are lucky enough to come in contact with you. Finally, to all the family child care providers who have approached me during the last three years and had such kind things to say about how this curriculum has made your very difficult job a little easier. You have no idea how much that means to me. Thank you. xiii COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Introduction: Teaching through Quality Care As we learn more about how young children learn and grow, it becomes increasingly apparent that a quality family child care program can and should have a lasting effect on participating children and their families. Quality family child care provides children with education and loving, continual care. It is the best of both worlds. In that spirit, the objective of this curriculum is to demonstrate how multiage groups of children in family child care can be taught through quality of care. Very often the word teach brings to mind a formal learning setting. But children begin to learn from the moment of birth. Children learn from what they see, hear, and do. As a result, you are teaching during every interaction that occurs in the course of the day. In providing quality care to young children, it is impossible not to teach. Chil- dren learn by watching, listening, and attempting to replicate your behavior. Child care, with an emphasis on the word care, has to include all the components that allow for healthy development. For example, a provider who has developed effective and creative learning activities but neglects to change diapers when needed is not provid- ing quality child care. Successful family child care programs have the best organiza- tion of space and time. Maximizing all the points of contact during a typical family child care day provides an opportunity to meet all the early child care curriculum objectives. The word curriculum as it applies to family child care generally means a method of instruction. Curriculum objectives (what a curriculum should accomplish) in early child care include understanding several developmental domains: 1 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 2     introduc tion : te aching through qua lit y c a re Physical and motor development: a child’s growth and how she develops the large muscles for walking, running, and throwing, and the small muscles for drawing, writing, feeding, and dressing. Cognitive or intellectual development: a child’s ability to think, reason, solve problems, form concepts, remember ideas, and recognize objects. Language development: the ability to listen, understand, speak, and even- tually to read and write. Social development: how a child interacts with other children and adults by sharing, cooperating, and following rules. Emotional development: a child’s self-esteem, self-control, and ability to express feelings. Approaches to learning: the ways a child explores and builds knowledge. Developmental domains are the specific areas of learning that young children need to grow and develop. Part 1 includes an overview of each learning domain from birth through age five: physical and motor, cognitive, communication and language, social and emotional, and approaches to learning. I also include a detailed list of developmental indicators from which this curriculum was built. It is important that each domain be addressed in your daily schedule of activities. The activities in this curriculum are creative and inclusive to allow for the healthy development of the infants, toddlers, and preschool children who participate in your family child care program. How to Use This Curriculum The foundation of a successful program is the relationships you develop with the children in your care. These relationships allow you to know the children’s individ- ual needs and to better support their overall growth and development. For example, the nonmobile infant is given space to stretch on a blanket. Then, as a baby working on crawling, she is given encouragement and room to move. When this same baby is ready to pull up and try walking, you provide sturdy furniture and a soft landing spot to support and encourage this new phase of development. Later the toddler needs safe but challenging places to climb, and the preschooler needs room to run and kick a ball. The same series of development occurs across all of the developmental domains. Providing safe challenges and encouragement supports the learning that young chil- dren need to grow and develop. This curriculum has been organized to support this type of teaching through quality care. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET introduc tion : te aching through qua lit y c a re The Redleaf Family Child Care Curriculum is designed to be as reader friendly as possible. The material is organized to use as a reference so that you can find what you need when you need it. Units 1 through 5 provide an overview of typical child devel- opment by developmental domain: Unit 1: physical and motor development Unit 2: cognitive development Unit 3: communication and language development Unit 4: social and emotional development Unit 5: approaches to learning Each domain is divided into age groups to facilitate planning for the learning that occurs for children in your care. A chart of developmental indicators shows the typi- cal age range when each developmental benchmark is met. The curriculum’s activities are built from these indicators. For example, there are activities designed to promote hand-eye coordination, a physical development indicator. Unit 6 is an overview of how to set up your program and evaluate your practices. It provides tips on creating learning environments and safety concerns to be aware of. Creating a nurturing and safe environment is an important part of preparing your child care environment. Setting up materials ahead of time allows you to be organized and free to participate when you and the children start an activity. Unit 6 also describes the importance of partnering with the families of children in your care. Parents and guardians are each child’s first teachers, and as such, they deserve your respect. Communicating your philosophy and approach and building a relationship with each child’s family is key to a successful experience. Families who are confident of your abilities will send children who are more willing and eager to participate and learn. This unit offers suggestions to help make the transition between the child’s home and yours as smooth and seamless as possible. Part 2, the activities, is the heart of this book. It opens with a description of how to identify learning objectives and choose activities that will support and challenge each child. The activities that follow are divided by learning domain and then by con- tent. There are five content areas within the domain: Use Senses Explore Movement Interact with People Interact with Toys and Objects Develop Verbal Skills COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL     3 DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 4     introduc tion : te aching through qua lit y c a re Within each content area, the activities are presented by age level. The primary developmental goal is included with each activity. This format allows you to choose an activity based on the needs of a specific child or two while incorporating the other children in the same or similar activities. Keep in mind that there are usually multiple secondary developmental goals in each activity. For example, included in the physical development section you will see a block activity for toddlers with secondary goals of supporting hand-eye coordination and stacking skills. The illustrations in part 2 are designed to help you recognize which content area and age group the activities connect to. There are fifteen illustrations, one for each age group and content area: Use Senses Explore Movement Infants Infants Toddlers & Twos Toddlers & Twos Preschool Children Preschool Children COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET introduc tion : te aching through qua lit y c a re Interact with People Infants Toddlers & Twos Interact with Toys and Objects Infants Preschool Children Develop Verbal Skills Infants Toddlers & Twos Toddlers & Twos Preschool Children Preschool Children COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL     5 DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 6     introduc tion : te aching through qua lit y c a re Many of the activities are designed to complement the tasks and routines that are part of each family child care day. Activities have also been developed to easily com- plement the overall goals of a quality family child care program: healthy physical development for all the children age-appropriate cognitive development opportunities for the development of good language and communication skills creation of an environment that enhances social and emotional development fostering an enthusiasm about learning The activities in this curriculum purposefully encourage you to be an interactive participant. This is especially important in family child care, where commonly only one adult is present. The most necessary prerequisite in providing quality child care is your willingness to actively participate. Regardless of how expensive or how abundant the materials and equipment, the happiest and best-adjusted children are in the homes of providers who are the most directly and consistently involved. Cost-effective and easily implemented activities that allow you to interact with each participating child enrich your program. The activities are designed to capitalize on the available space in a traditional home-based setting. This is important. Perhaps one of the most dramatic changes in family child care in the past ten years is the growing trend to create settings that rep- licate center-based environments. Many providers have built additions or converted basements, or have turned over large sections of their living space, all with the inten- tion of creating settings much like those one might encounter in a child care center. One reason providers do this is to accommodate additional children and generate more income. Other providers have expressed the desire to maintain their competi- tiveness with child care centers. Ironically, these types of changes have occurred dur- ing a period when many centers are simulta­neously attempting to create cozier and more intimate settings, or less “institutionalized” child care environments. The most successful family child care programs are located in homes where pro- viders have chosen materials and activities that complement the uniqueness of their environments. Typical family child care homes are able to provide young children with a sense of comfort and personalized care that is difficult to achieve in more institutionalized settings. For these reasons, it is important to assess whether cho- sen activities can realistically be implemented in your environment. For example, COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET introduc tion : te aching through qua lit y c a re you may find that water and sand table activities are not realistic in your setting. If this is true for you, your challenge then becomes determining what sensory activities can be included. There is always more than one way to accomplish a developmental objective. For example, sorting socks for color and texture, playing with playdough, and fingerpainting provide wonderful sensory experiences. There are many oppor- tunities for children to engage in water activities that do not require a water table. Creating a curriculum that meets the developmental needs of all the participating children while allowing providers and their families to enjoy the character of their homes should not be mutually exclusive goals. Following the activities, part 3 offers a collection of information that applies to all age groups. This information reflects frequent questions from family child care providers, including daily schedules, information on using computers with chil- dren, having pets in your home, and caring for children with food allergies, as well as safety information. I include book and website resources you can use to inspire your teaching through quality care. Caring for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschool Children This curriculum acknowledges all the beneficial interactions that occur naturally between caregivers and children. Perhaps even more importantly, it also acknowl- edges all the beneficial interactions that can occur between children who are for- tunate enough to be included in mixed-age programs. Understanding that learning occurs as a result of your active involvement in daily tasks as well as children’s active involvement with one another is important. Children of all ages will often respond in a positive way when they understand that you are not simply caring for them but also caring about them. Talking and smiling while changing a diaper, patiently repeat- ing a story to a toddler who needs your attention, and praising a preschooler who has offered to help you set the table are all examples of how you personally affect the positive development of children. The interactions between caregiver and child mat- ter. Your gentle guidance in encouraging children to appropriately interact with one another also matters. Throughout this book you will find activities that require your support and active participation. To provide support that meets the needs of each child in each age group, your curriculum and your daily schedule of activities need to be as flexible and as inclusive as possible. They also need to provide many opportuni- ties for children to learn from one another. Although the activities are organized by age, you will find that the activities and suggestions were designed to be easily applied within mixed-age groups. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL     7 8     DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET introduc tion : te aching through qualit y c are Infant Care The infant activities reflect the research about how and when babies learn—they learn through quality interactions and responsive care from loving adults. Since fam- ily child care providers may care for a child from early infancy to kindergarten, estab- lishing a good beginning is very important. To support the huge amount of growth and development that occurs in infancy, the infant activities are subdivided into three age groupings: birth to six months, six to twelve months, and twelve to eighteen months. Caring for Toddlers & Twos The word toddler is used throughout the curriculum to identify children ages eighteen to thirty-six months. Children in this age group generally have limitless energy as well as an enormous amount of curiosity, and they are often fearless. The toddler activities provide general information about toddler development while highlighting a learning objective within a specific developmental domain. Preschool Care For children to progress and to begin school ready for formal instruction, thoughtful preparation must occur on the part of the early childhood professionals. Family child care providers are certainly not exempt from this responsibility. The preschool activi- ties for children ages three to five years include general development information in addition to developmental goals covering the learning domains. Establishing a formal preschool environment within a family child care setting is not always possible. The curriculum provides information about how to create a viable preschool area in your home while incorporating age-appropriate activities and achieving expected outcomes. Suggestions for forming collaborative partnerships with parents and community resources to allow preschool children a smooth transition from child care to a more structured school setting are also included. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Part 1 Understanding the Needs of Children Getting to know each child and understanding developmental benchmarks that apply to each child help you to include activities that correspond with each child’s developmental stage. With a variety of activities and materials at your disposal, you will have many options as you plan your daily schedule of activities. Typically children grow and develop in similar patterns. However, every child is an individual. The following information is simply a guideline for growth and devel- opment. As you will note, a range of ages is included in the developmental indicator information. If you have concerns regarding a child’s development, you need to com- municate your concerns to that child’s parents or guardians. As a child care provider, you have a unique opportunity as well as a very real responsibility to tell parents what you see, hear, and feel about the healthy development and well-being of their children while in your care. 9 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Unit 1 Physical and Motor Development Physical development describes children’s growth, while motor development refers to their ability to move their bodies in a coordinated manner. Motor development includes small- and large-muscle (or fine- and gross-motor) skills, which are described below. Good physical development begins with good eating habits. Healthy neurological development in infants, as well as healthy growth and development in older children, starts with proper nutrition. In addition to good nutrition, physical activities that pro- mote large-muscle development for all age groups are necessary and important parts of any family child care’s daily schedule. Running and jumping, throwing and catch- ing, walking and skipping are all necessary components. It is important to remember gross-motor skill development is necessary for infants as well as older children in your program. Exercises and games that provide for large-muscle development in infants will assist in their ability to roll over, crawl, and eventually take their first steps. Developing small muscles, as well as fine-motor skills, is an equally important goal. Coloring, cutting, and turning the pages of a book are all examples of daily activi- ties that promote healthy motor development. Motor development is as necessary as all the other curriculum objectives and should never be overlooked. Planning a suc- cessful daily schedule of activities must include the opportunity for active and robust play. Appropriate scheduling and good utilization of available space, both in and out of doors, is necessary in accomplishing this important objective. 1111 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 12     pa r t 1: u n d e r s ta n d i n g t h e n e e d s o f c h i l d r e n Infant Physical and Motor Development Between birth and eighteen months of age, children experience an incredible amount of both physical and motor skill improvement. An infant who begins by tracking movement with his eyes and reaching for a finger is soon sitting up and grasping small toys. Little fingers that begin by grasping your finger are quickly grasping a bottle and just as quickly grasping a cup. Legs that initially kick and stretch are soon crawl- ing and eventually taking those first wondrous steps. As you plan your day and create objectives for each child, remember to include sufficient time for infant activities that promote physical development. Infants Birth–6 months Physical development before six months of age usually includes learning to push up from the floor and roll over. Infants need time during the day to lie on their backs on a blanket on the floor or outside on the grass. Sit in front of them and encourage them to roll over, and eventually to push up. Kicking and moving their hands and arms develops motor skills and is some- thing that comes naturally to infants. Use many of the activities included in part 2 to encourage nonmobile infants to move their arms and legs. As they become mobile, provide many daily opportunities for infants to wiggle across a safe space—they love moving! These wiggles and shuffles are preparing them to crawl. Place infants on their backs, allowing them space to roll over and move while you sit on the floor facing them. Use the suggestions in this book as well as your own creative ideas to encour- age infants to roll over, then shuffle forward. Offer an enthusiastic response as infants work hard developing these motor skills. Infants 6–12 months Small- and large-motor skills develop separately. For example, an infant at six months may be able to sit in a high chair without support but not be able to grasp small objects until seven or eight months of age. Infants in this age group should be given ample opportunity to sit supported when necessary and to sit unsupported when appropriate. Six to twelve months of age is also the time when most infants begin to crawl. Activities that encourage this skill should be included throughout the day. Ample protected space provides opportunity for infants to move and play. When establishing your daily schedule, look at ways you can offer a vari- ety of activities for multiage groups in an area where you can adequately supervise all the children. For example, create an open and safe space for infants on the floor near COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET unit 1: physic al and motor de velopment   an activity table where older children are working. This allows you to supervise both age groups while allowing infants important opportunities for physical development. During this developmental period, infants are also beginning to grasp objects and transfer toys from one hand to another. You will want to ensure you have sufficient infant materials that are safe and sized appropriately for small fingers to grasp and experiment with. Infants 12–18 months Infants in this age group are walking, so it is important that your environment ade- quately provide for this developmental indicator. Infants should be encouraged to walk when they are ready. It is your job to ensure your child care setting is hazard- free. Children in this age category can usually walk unassisted and will, if allowed, cruise around the available space, sometimes holding on to furniture for additional support. Look at your space and assess how best to place low furniture, which can pro- vide assistance in this important activity. Make sure stairways are protected by gates, because these infants will try to climb stairs. Some providers incorporate supervised stair climbing as an effective infant activity. When the infant climbs the stairs, the provider follows, always closely supervising. This allows the infant to exercise both leg and arm muscles and stay safe while climbing. Small-motor skill development for older infants often includes activities such as placing one block on top of another or scribbling with crayons. While the infants need to be supervised carefully during these activities, it is important that these types of opportunities be offered to them in addition to the other children in the group. Toddler Physical and Motor Development Physical development is extremely important to the overall healthy growth and devel- opment of toddlers (eighteen to thirty-six months). Toddlers walk alone, and usually by two years of age they run with a large, if somewhat awkward, gait. Children in this age range are usually able to jump and ride small tricycles with or without pedaling. When scheduling your daily activities, be sure to include opportunities for activities that promote coordination and balance. Look at your indoor and outdoor space care- fully. Are you accommodating these activities and others while promoting good physi- cal development throughout the course of the day? Most toddlers prefer large-motor activities, such as running, jumping, kicking, dancing, pedaling, pushing, pulling, throwing a ball, and participating in simple but active games. This strong desire for large-motor skill development begins as toddlers’ coordination improves. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL   13 DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 14     pa r t 1: u n d e r s ta n d i n g t h e n e e d s o f c h i l d r e n Fine-motor activities should also be encouraged to ensure the refinement of small-muscle coordination. Building towers with blocks or other stackable materials, turning the pages of a book, and moving their fingers independently are examples of developing fine-motor skills. Ample opportunity for these types of activities should be available, because hand-eye and fine-motor skill development play a huge part in a child’s ability to prepare for future learning. Having small-motor skill materials (books, crayons, scissors, blocks) available to toddlers is a must. Preschool-Age Physical and Motor Development Preschool children are generally taller, thinner, and more proportionate in their appearance than infants and toddlers. Three-year-olds enjoy repeating physical activi- ties, such as sliding, jumping, or riding a bike. Three-year-olds can usually walk on a balance beam or hop on one foot. They can bounce and catch a ball. They love to run, and they do so frequently without falling. Three-year-olds are learning to draw simple shapes; zip, snap, and fasten; and use scissors, brushes, pens, pencils, crayons, and markers. Usually at this stage their toilet training is completed. As the three-year-olds grow and their gross-motor movements develop and mature, their ability to run, jump, hop, throw, and climb should continue to improve. They begin to dress unassisted and to run with ease. They can put puzzles together. Older preschoolers begin to use the left or right hand predominantly. You need to permit children to use their preferred hand comfortably. That means your envi- ronment must accommodate left-handed children as well as right-handed children. Left-handed baseball gloves and scissors are examples of accommodating left-handed children. Proficient use of scissors is another important developmental indicator because it shows that five-year-olds are developing their pincer grip, the small muscles in their hands that allow them to hold a pencil. Opportunities for this type of development need to be considered in each day’s schedule of activities for preschoolers. Understanding these benchmarks means that as part of your quality care, you make sure you have sufficient and appropriate materials to foster all of these types of healthy physical development. Preschool children need outdoor space where they can engage in gross-motor activity, as well as effectively organized indoor areas that pro- vide them with ample opportunity to refine their fine-motor skill development. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET unit 1: physic al and motor de velopment   Physical and Motor Indicators Infant Physical and Motor Development Indicators Indicator Generally Begins Reacts to loud noises Birth–2 months Moves head from side to side while on stomach Birth–2 months Brings hands to face Birth–2 months Focuses on objects 8 to 12 inches away Birth–2 months Turns head to both sides while on back 2–3 months Follows moving object with eyes 2–4 months Holds head steady when carried or held 2–4 months Brings hands to midline while on back 3–4 months Rotates or turns head from side to side with no head bobbing 3–4 months Plays with hands and may hold and observe a toy 3–5 months Reaches for objects 3–5 months Follows distant object with eyes 3–6 months Rolls over 4–6 months Lifts head while lying on back 4–6 months Brings feet to mouth easily while lying on back 4–6 months Holds up chest with weight on forearms 4–6 months Attempts to crawl (stomach and legs dragging) 5–9 months Grasps small objects 6–8 months Transfers object from one hand to another 6–9 months Can be pulled to feet but can’t support self 6–9 months Gets to sitting position 6–9 months Sits unsupported 6–9 months Sits by self and maintains balance 6–9 months Accepts being spoon-fed 6–9 months Crawls (trunk lifted) 6–11 months Cruises (walks around holding on to furniture) 9–12 months Walks with assistance 9–12 months Stands alone 10–15 months Walks alone 11–18 months Scribbles with crayon 12–15 months (Continued) COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL   15 DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET 16     pa r t 1: u n d e r s ta n d i n g t h e n e e d s o f c h i l d r e n (Continued) Indicator Generally Begins Uses small muscles in hands to squish playdough 12–15 months Crawls up and down stairs 12–18 months Claps hands with enjoyment 12–18 months Controls small muscles in hands, such as using a spoon 12–18 months Puts one block on top of another 12–18 months Toddler Physical and Motor Development Indicators Indicator Generally Begins Walks up and down stairs with help, usually leading with same foot 18–24 months Runs with large gait 18–24 months Throws a ball 18–24 months Feeds self 18–24 months Dresses self 18–24 months Shows interest in toilet training 18–24 months Builds tower of three or more blocks 2–2 ½ years Runs with ease 2–2 ½ years Stands on tiptoes 2–2 ½ years Uses object to hammer and pound 2–2 ½ years Turns pages of book one at a time 2–2 ½ years Jumps from height of 12 inches 2–2 ½ years Moves fingers individually and draws circle 2 ½ –3 years Rides tricycle—may alternate between scooting and pedaling 2 ½ –3 years Preschool-Age Physical and Motor Development Indicators Indicator Generally Begins Copies and draws simple shapes and letters 3 years Uses scissors 3 years Uses small muscles in hands to color, cut, paste, and paint 3 years Swings arms when walking 3 years Walks on a balance beam or line 3 years (Continued) COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET unit 1: physic al and motor de velopment   (Continued) Indicator Generally Begins Balances or hops on one foot 3 years Jumps into air with both feet 3 years Slides without assistance 3 years Bounces a ball and catches it 3 years Runs consistently without falling 3 years Builds and stacks with several small blocks 3 years Manages zippers, snaps, and buttons 3 years Makes marks or strokes with drawing tools 3 years Stays dry while sleeping 3 years Naps less frequently 3 years Completes toilet training 3 years Walks up and down stairs, alternating feet 3 years Dresses with little assistance 4 years Runs with ease and stops quickly 4 years Throws a ball overhand with greater accuracy and distance 4 years Pedals and steers preschool-sized three-wheelers 3 years Scoots on two-wheeled bike without pedals and/or pedals and steers a two-wheeled bike with training wheels 4 years Puts puzzles together 4 years Uses large muscles to throw, climb, skip, hop, jump, catch, turn somersaults, and bounce 4 years Throws a ball to a target overhand and underhand 4 years Catches a ball when thrown or bounced 5 years Balances well 5 years Uses left or right hand predominantly 5 years Jumps over objects 8 to 10 inches high without falling 5 years Kicks a ball with accuracy 5 years Learns to jump rope 5 years Learns to tie shoes 5 years Rides two-wheeled bike 5 years COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL   17 Family Child Care / Curriculum DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET Over developmentally appropriate learning experiences to choose from! The Redleaf Family Child Care Curriculum, second edition, provides the same user-friendly format as the original with new content and ideas for hundreds of creative and inclusive learning experiences. Activities are organized by age and developmental domain—physical and motor, cognitive, communication and language, social-emotional, and approaches to learning. This easy-to-use reference allows you to make choices based on the needs of the children in your care. Sharon Woodward is cofounder of S&D Instructional Services, which provides creative skill building for early child care professionals. She has been dedicated to supporting family child care professionals for over 25 years and holds a degree in social work. Woodward is also the coauthor of The Home Visitor’s Manual and Family Child Care Guide to Visits, Inspections, and Interviews. “Excellent realistic strategies for providers to use with the children in their care. . . . This manual is outstanding, and many family child care providers, children, and families will benefit.” —Nancy Tyler Higgins, PhD Chair of Education, Middlesex Community College The book contains a complete curriculum for a successful family child care program that promotes the healthy development of infants, toddlers, and preschool children in a caring, nurturing environment. The updated curriculum now includes: • Information on supporting children with special needs. • New activities designed for kindergarten readiness including literacy, math, and science. • A new unit focused on Approaches to Learning that better aligns with many states’ learning standards. • Additional resources to help develop a well-rounded program, including parent engagement and daily schedules. Enrich your program and support children’s early learning with best practices and activities designed specifically for family child care professionals. To see how this curriculum aligns with your early childhood state standards, see COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL ISBN 978-1-60554-414-4 $44.95