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DOUBLE TAP TO ZOOM WITH PHONE OR TABLET programs, but rather has engaged all educators in finding a strong identity for themselves and their centers. The tradition of the indigenous Maori people introducing themselves by their lineage, including their mountain and river, has deepened our understanding of the importance of creating a sense of place for children in our early childhood programs. Quietly, behind the scenes, in cities and conferences across the United States, Edgar Klugman, Walter F. Drew, and a cadre of “play caucus” profes- sionals and folks from educational repurposing centers have been provid- ing early childhood educators with firsthand experiences of the value of playing with open-ended, repurposed materials. They have touched thousands of teachers who have, in turn, changed their thinking and practice in providing beauti- ful, open-ended materials to children. (Plus, their repur- posing has been good for the planet.) You’ll see many examples of repurposing materials throughout the pages of this book. In the first edition of Designs for Living and Learning, we confessed that one of the major shortcomings in our own professional development was a lopsided focus on indoor environments. We are strong believers in the value of outdoor spaces for children and have made it a priority to learn more about creating them with as much thought as indoor spaces. We have been inspired by pro- grams that offer a deep connection to the natural world and offer multiple opportunities for active big-body play in their designs. These programs not only include aspects of adven- ture playgrounds outdoors, but they bring indoor activities outside with materials that allow for ongoing investigations, building, and collaborative play to take place in fresh air and under natural lighting. We’ve watched with delight the free flow of children between indoor and outdoor spaces in places such as Aotearoa New Zealand and California, and indeed, when Deb returned to work with toddlers in the rainy Pacific Northwest, she designed her program in this way. We strongly subscribe to the slogan of the Scandinavians, “There’s no such thing as bad weather, just bad cloth- ing.” We find the forest school movement in Europe and countries beyond to be absolutely inspiring. While the primary emphasis in this book is on young children who are typically developing, we believe the ideas can be adapted for children with special needs, or rights, as Reggio Emilia educators remind us. Indeed, these designs bring out more competencies than we often give these chil- dren credit for. 8 [ Introduc tion COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL