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COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL 2. Toddlers should engage in at least 60 minutes—and up to several hours—per day of unstructured physical activity and should not be sedentary for more than 60 minutes at a time, except when sleeping. 3. Toddlers should be given ample opportunities to develop move- ment skills that will serve as the building blocks for future motor skillfulness and physical activity. 4. Toddlers should have access to indoor and outdoor areas that meet or exceed recommended safety standards for performing large-muscle activities. 5. Those in charge of toddlers’ well-being are responsible for under- standing the importance of physical activity and promoting movement skills by providing opportunities for structured and unstructured physical activity and movement experiences. (AAHPERD 2009, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11) NAEYC offers Standards for Early Childhood Professional Preparation Pro- grams. Among those standards addressed by Toddlers are the following: • Standard 1a: Knowing and understanding young children’s charac- teristics and needs. • Standard 1b: Knowing and understanding the multiple influences on development and learning. • Standard 1c: Using developmental knowledge to create healthy, respectful, supportive, and challenging learning environments. • Standard 3b: Knowing about and using observation, documenta- tion, and other appropriate assessment tools and approaches. • Standard 4a: Understanding positive relationships and supportive interactions as the foundation of their work with children. • Standard 4b: Knowing and understanding effective strategies and tools for early education. • Standard 4c: Using a broad repertoire of developmentally appropri- ate teaching/learning approaches. • Standard 5a: Understanding content knowledge and resources in academic disciplines. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL Introduction  11