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COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL infancy. The prefrontal cortex is the area of the brain that is involved in self-regulation, stress management, and empathy (see chapter 1). Touch and warm, friendly eye contact can provide nurturing that was possibly missed during infancy. Young students were absolutely thrilled with the loving interaction and could not get enough of it. Students were encouraged to engage in the rituals with younger siblings, relatives, and neighborhood youngsters. Including older students in the loving ritu- als with younger students doubles the positive results. Here are a couple examples of these rituals: A Wonderful Woman Who Lived in a Shoe A wonderful woman lived in a shoe. She had so many children she knew exactly what to do. She held them, she rocked them, and tucked them in bed. “I love you, I love you,” is what she said. (Bailey 2000, 59) Instructions: Say the first line and take one of the child’s hands and give it a gentle rub. Touch each finger of that hand as you mention all the children she had. As you say, “She held them,” fold the fingers of the child’s hand into a ball and wrap both your hands around the child’s, swaying from side to side as though you were rocking the hand as you finish the ritual. Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star Twinkle, twinkle little star, What a wonderful child you are! With bright eyes and nice round cheeks, Talented person from head to feet. Twinkle, twinkle little star, What a wonderful child you are! (Bailey 2000, 63) Implementing the Trauma-Informed Classroom COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL 31