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National Association of Child Care Pro- fessionals, 272 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 46 National Program for Playground Safety, 45 Nemours Foundation, 48 newsletters and brochures, 8–9, 35, 137, 138 NFPA. See National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) noise levels, 162, 198–200 note taking in observation process, 38–39, 77 reflecting on lesson plans, 88–89 by staff, 38–39 O observations assessing social competence, 105 benefits and importance of, 76, 132, 253–54 as evaluation tool, 17, 32–33, 251 note taking, 38–39, 77 of physical space usage, 160–62 steps to follow, 77–78 See also assessments older children meeting needs of, 14, 143–44 provision of support for younger children, 151 quiet social areas, 231–32 Olds, Anita Rui, 15, 43, 182 Ollhoff, Jim, 108 Ollhoff, Laurie, 108 openness in conflict management, 120 cultivating, 129, 147–48 organization clutter, dealing with, 255–59 storage, 4, 174–75, 205 organizational administrators, 19 orientation sessions, 137 outdoor activities assessing, 13 designing space, 141, 246–47 equipment and materials, 141, 246–47, 249 knowledge and skills development, 248 for older children, 144 planning, 245–48 safety, 48, 51, 246 unsafe equipment, 48 overstimulation, 181 See also sensory stimulation 282 • Index P parents informing about guest speakers, 148 program assessment by, 32 PAS. See Program Administration Scale (PAS) patterns, sensory stimulation and, 192–94 peace table/conflict resolution center, 112, 117–18 peer teaching, 243 personality, compared to temperament, 72 photographs as communication tool, 35 photo releases, 35 taken by children, 234 physical development. See motor skills development physical environment accessibility, 140–41, 142–43 assessing, 11–13, 170–71, 172 clues to ineffectiveness, 161–62, 254 dedicated space, 6–8 described, 10 design of arranging areas, 155–58, 167–71, 172 basic requirements, 15, 161 belongings, space for, 174 fifty-fifty rule, 170 lighting, 182–87 mapping and planning, 163–71 rugs and floor coverings, 5, 174, 193, 207 storage, 4, 174–75 traffic patterns/pathways, 162, 169 effect on behavior, 158–60, 161–62 learning domain supports, 71–72 multiple intelligence supports, 68–69 older children, spaces for, 143–44 sensory stimulation colors, 187–92 lighting, 182–87 patterns, 192–94 smells, 200–201 sound and acoustics, 198–200 textures, 195–98 setting up and taking down, 3–4 shared space, 2–6, 173–74 temperament supports, 73–74 water sources, 6, 207, 216 See also environment; equipment; materials; safety; toys; welcom- ing environments physical impairments accessibility issues, 140–41, 142–43 accommodations, 28–29 planning based on observations, 77–78 compared to doing, 78 Environment Planning Worksheet, 268–69 guiding questions for activities and themes, 88 including children in, 85, 204–5 lesson plans, 82, 83, 85–89 physical space and program areas, 163–71 play outdoor activities, 48, 141, 245–49 supporting, 122 value of, 121–22 See also activities; games and puzzles playground safety, 45, 48, 141 pollutants. See toxins and pollutants problem-solving conflict management, 117–18 in play, 121–22 Program Administration Scale (PAS), 274 program areas arrangement of, 156–58, 167–71 colors in, 187–92 establishing balance of activities, 203 evaluation and documentation of usage, 160–62, 172 home base areas, 59 lighting, 182–87 mapping and planning, 163–71 organizing materials, 174–75, 205 patterns and textures in, 192–98 smells, 200–201 sound and acoustics, 198–200 types of blocks and building areas, 210–11 cooking, 216–17 creative art, 206–9 dramatic play, 212–15 homework assistance, 242–45 math/science/literacy, 173, 237–42 media/technology, 233–37 quiet social areas, 230–33 program evaluation formal assessments, 31–32 observations, 31, 32–33, 251 resources, 270–74 puppets, 117 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL