Published by Redleaf Press
10 Yorkton Court
St. Paul, MN 55117
www.redleafpress.org © 2005, 2013 by Gaye Gronlund and Marlyn James
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise noted on a specific page, no portion of this publication may be reproduced or trans-
mitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or capturing on any
information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may
quote brief passages in a critical article or review to be printed in a magazine or newspaper, or electronically transmitted on
radio, television, or the Internet.
Excerpts on page 22 are from Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through
Age 8, a position statement by NAEYC. Copyright © 2009 NAEYC. www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSDAP.
pdf. Reprinted with permission.
Excerpts on pages 84 and 89 are from “Play: Children’s Context for Development,” Young Children 58 (3): 38–45, by Tovah
P. Klein, Daniele Wirth, and Keri Linas. Copyright © 2003 NAEYC. Reprinted with permission.
Excerpt on page 151 is from “A Different Look at Challenging Behavior,” Young Children 60 (2): 94–99, by Catherine
Loomis and Jane Wagner. Copyright © 2005 NAEYC. Reprinted with permission.
Excerpts on pages 213–214 (except where noted) are from Early Childhood Curriculum, Assessment and Program Evaluation:
Building an Effective, Accountable System in Programs for Children Birth through Age 8, a position statement by NAEYC.
Copyright © 2003 NAEYC. http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/CAPEexpand.pdf. Reprinted with Permission.
First edition published 2005. Second edition 2013.
Cover design by Jim Handrigan
Cover photograph © Andresr/Veer
Interior design by Ryan Scheife, Mayfly Design, and typeset in Bembo
Printed in the United States of America
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Gronlund, Gaye, 1952–
Focused observations : how to observe young children for assessment and curriculum planning / Gaye Gronlund and
Marlyn James. — Second edition.
Summary: “Intentional teaching begins with focused observations and systematic documentation of children’s
learning and development. Focused Observations, Second Edition is filled with tools and techniques designed to help
you purposefully observe children, create portfolios with rich documentation, and plan curriculum that supports every
child”— Provided by publisher.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-60554-251-5 (e-book)
1. Observation (Educational method) 2. Educational tests and measurements. 3. Early childhood education.
4. Curriculum planning. I. James, Marlyn. II. Title.
Printed on acid-free paper