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COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL Pre-Kindergarten: Pennsylvania Learning Standards for Early Childhood, 83–84 pretend play. See play Project Approach, 102, 130 Project Zero, Harvard University, 52 Puerling, Brian, 95 Pulido-Tobiassen, Dora, 122 “pullout” instruction, 59, 60 puzzle experts, characteristics of, 10 Q questions/questioning as assessment strategy, 20 closed versus open-ended, 47–49 gathering information from families, 21 higher-order thinking skills, promoting, 49–50 inquiry process, encouraging, 30–31 as teaching strategy, 47–53 unanswered questions, 53 R reading. See literacy reading aloud, 80–81 Red Book, The (Lehman), 75 reference books, 75–76 Reggio Emilia approach, 24, 102, 130 reluctant readers, 80 Research Skills for Kids (website), 130 Ringgold, Faith, 77 role models children as, 61–62 teachers as, 52, 95, 116 Runton, Andy, 76 S scaffolding, 62–64 science experts as resources, 106–7 gender differences, 95, 115 inquiry-based learning, 102–3 lead investigators, exceptionally bright children as, 103 mistakes, encouraging, 107 naturalist intelligence, 16 passions, exploring, 104 resources, 129–31 scientific method, 98–101 young scientists, characteristics of, 10, 97–98 Science NetLinks, 130 Scieszka, Jon, 94 screening, as assessment tool, 22 sensitivity of children, 110 service activities. See social action Slobodkina, Esphyr, 81 social action encouraging, 117 resources, 131–32 social-emotional development attempts to fit in, 114–15 cognitive learning and, 60 cultural and gender differences, 115 emotions, expressing, 113–14 of exceptionally bright children, 9, 19, 109–11 friendships, facilitating, 111–13 imaginary friends, 116 interpersonal intelligence, 15 parent concerns about, 121 social learning examples, 63–64 mathematics, 93–94 overview, 60–62 story dramatization, 79 social learning theory, 4 Socrates, 4 S.O.S. Mathematics, 128 spatial intelligence, 15 special needs. See twice-exceptional children state standards, mathematics, 83–84 Steig, William, 28 STEM Education Resource Center, 106 STEM subjects, developing interests in, 105–6 storybooks. See picture books Story Dictation: A Guide for Early Childhood Professionals (Gadzikowski), 79 story dramatization. See dramatization COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL Index | 145