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COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL zone of proximal development and scaffolding, 62–64 constructivist approach, 60 conversation teaching strategies examples, 4, 47, 49–50, 51–52, 67–68 listening techniques, 53–55 literacy instruction, 71 mathematics instruction, 91–93 overview and definition, 4 questions, asking, 47–53 unanswered questions, 53 creative thinking, 33, 41–42, 46 critical thinking, 33, 41–42, 45 cultural differences, 115, 122–23 Curie, Marie, 97 curiosity of children little scientists, characteristics of, 10 naturalist intelligence, 16 curriculum considerations differentiation strategies, 29–33 integrating cognitive and social learning, 59 pre-assessment for planning, 25 D data analysis math skills, 88 development asynchronous, 11 cognitive, 18, 22–23, 41–42 social-emotional, 19, 109–10 zone of proximal development, 62–64 developmentally appropriate practice, 59 DiCamillo, Kate, 77 dictation as assessment tool, 23–25 engaging advanced readers, 77–80 examples, 67 mathematics skills, documenting, 91–93 differentiation teaching strategies choices, offering to children, 36–38 complexity, increasing, 31–33 curriculum, differentiating, 29–33 examples, 4, 28–39, 66–69 flexible grouping, 34 inquiry process, encouraging, 30–31 literacy instruction, 71 materials, adapting, 38–39 mathematics instruction, 88–91 overview and definition, 3, 4, 27–28 pace, adapting for activities, 34–35 disabilities, children with, 12–14 discussions, class. See conversation teaching strategies disengagement. See boredom diversity of learners, 1, 7 DK Eyewitness book series, 75 Doctor De Soto (Steig), 28–29 documentation. See assessment; portfolio documentation Dorros, Arthur, 77 Do Something (organization), 131 dramatization engaging advanced readers, 77–80 in science curriculum, 104 drawings, as assessment tool, 24–25 Dweck, Carol, 55 E Early Mathematics Education Project, Erikson Institute, 85, 127 early readers, characteristics of, 10, 71, 72 See also literacy Eastman, P. D., 10 effective listening. See listening Einstein, Albert, 97 Elephant and Piggie book series (Willems), 76 emergent curriculum process, 102–3 emotional development. See social- emotional development emotions expressing, 113–14 intense, 110–11 empathy, 9, 117 engineering, developing interests in, 105 Erikson Institute Early Mathematics Education Project, 85 Technology in Early Childhood (TEC) Center, 95 exceptionally bright children asynchronous development, 11 challenging behaviors of, 8, 11–12 COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL Index | 141