introduction 15 that Zambo offers are based on knowledge about how children develop emotional intelligence and how emotional memory and brain develop- ment affect children’s identity. In addition, the author shares a wealth of information about how girls and boys process and express emotions differently. The next two chapters explore why boys seem to do better in math and science than girls. Sylvia Bulgar opens her chapter (“The Role of Early Childhood in Gender Differences in Mathematics”) with a his- torical perspective on gender inequity in mathematics, including roles and position statements from national organizations like the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), and the effects of No Child Left Behind legislation and testing procedures. This infor- mation serves as a strong basis for her report of the research she con- ducted in primary grade classrooms in New Jersey. Her conclusions are powerful and important, and they reinforce for all of us the need for concrete “experiences that will help all children develop abstract notions of the mathematics in which they are engaged” (p. 173). In other words, it is in early childhood classrooms that we can build a strong foundation for girls, as well as for boys, to succeed in mathematics when they enter higher grades, where the gap between girls and boys widens. Debra Dyer, on the other hand, gives us a specific tool to help us teach concrete mathematical concepts to young children in early child- hood classrooms—block building (“Block Building in the Primary Classroom as a Gender Equalizer in Math and Science”). Dyer offers practical strategies and ideas about how to use the blocks, including suggestions for making the block center “female friendly.” She writes, “Using block building as both a preinstructional strategy and as a way to consolidate new knowledge can be highly motivating and interesting to all students” (p. 184). Both Dyer and Bulgar talk about the importance of creating equal opportunities in math and science for boys and girls. “Sexuality is, at its essence, about relationships. Children who have a healthy sense of themselves . . . have a good start at develop- ing relationships with others,” (p. 202) write Donna Couchenour and Kent Chrisman (“Healthy Sexuality Development and Gender Roles in Early Childhood”). They believe that gender identity and healthy sexuality development are inextricably linked. They go on to explain that while the prominent observable differences between the sexes at infancy are biological, environmental and socially constructed influ- ences begin once the baby has been identified as a boy or a girl. In a